The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

SUP  -  transcriptional regulator protein SUPERMAN

Arabidopsis thaliana

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of SUP


High impact information on SUP

  • The putative SUPERMAN protein contains one zinc-finger and a region resembling a basic leucine zipper motif, suggesting a function in transcriptional regulation [2].
  • These cmt3 mutants display a wild-type morphology but exhibit decreased CpXpG methylation of the SUP gene and of other sequences throughout the genome [3].
  • Seven heritable but unstable sup epi-alleles (the clark kent alleles) are associated with nearly identical patterns of excess cytosine methylation within the SUP gene and a decreased level of SUP RNA [4].
  • The pattern of PI expression also depends on the activity of the floral development genes APETALA2 and SUPERMAN and on the activity of PI itself [5].
  • The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis [6].

Biological context of SUP


Anatomical context of SUP

  • Together with our previous study of FON1, these results clearly indicate that the FON1-FON2 system in rice corresponds to the CLV signaling system in Arabidopsis and suggest that the negative regulation of stem cell identity by these systems may be principally conserved in a wide range of plants within the Angiosperms [9].

Associations of SUP with chemical compounds

  • Here, we report the synthesis and UV and NMR spectroscopic structural characterization of a 37 amino acid SUPERMAN region complexed to a Zn(2+) ion (Zn-SUP37) and present the first high-resolution structure of a classical zinc finger domain from a plant protein [10].
  • The SUP gene encodes a transcription factor with a C2H2-type zinc finger motif, a serine/proline-rich domain, a basic domain, and a leucine-zipper-like domain and is expressed in a very limited region in stamen primordia and in the developing ovary during flower development [11].
  • The gene FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1 regulates floral meristem size in rice and encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase orthologous to Arabidopsis CLAVATA1 [12].
  • Comparison of the methylated sequences in SUPERMAN and AGAMOUS suggests that hypermethylation could involve DNA secondary structures formed by pyrimidine-rich sequences [13].
  • In contrast, segregants lacking the METI antisense construct and epimutants with a hypermethylated allele of sup (clark kent 3), both of which have active METI genes, showed a higher frequency of methylation of CpG dinucleotides and of asymmetric cytosines [14].

Regulatory relationships of SUP

  • We cloned ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4) from a screen for mutants that suppress silencing of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN (SUP) gene [15].
  • Microscopic observations revealed that the innermost-whorl carpels had been replaced by stamen-like organs, which resembled the flowers of the previously described Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. mutation superman as well as those ectopically expressing the AP3 gene [16].

Other interactions of SUP

  • The spatial pattern of AGAMOUS expression remains unaltered in superman flowers as compared to wild-type flowers [8].
  • In addition, superman mutants exhibit a loss of determinacy of the floral meristem, an effect that appears to be mediated by the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA gene products [8].
  • However, SUP does not act merely through UFO, as constitutive expression of UFO did not rescue the defects in petal and stamen development in AP1::SUP flowers [17].
  • Thus, drm mutants prevent the establishment but not the maintenance of gene silencing at FWA and SUP, suggesting that the DRMs encode the major de novo methylation enzymes affecting these genes [18].
  • We suggest that the extensive SUP methylation in car has arisen from an abundant methylation of a single CpG site that was already present in abscisic acid-insensitive (abi3-4) mutants, from which car was segregating [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SUP


  1. The SUPERMAN protein is an active repressor whose carboxy-terminal repression domain is required for the development of normal flowers. Hiratsu, K., Ohta, M., Matsui, K., Ohme-Takagi, M. FEBS Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Role of SUPERMAN in maintaining Arabidopsis floral whorl boundaries. Sakai, H., Medrano, L.J., Meyerowitz, E.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Requirement of CHROMOMETHYLASE3 for maintenance of CpXpG methylation. Lindroth, A.M., Cao, X., Jackson, J.P., Zilberman, D., McCallum, C.M., Henikoff, S., Jacobsen, S.E. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypermethylated SUPERMAN epigenetic alleles in arabidopsis. Jacobsen, S.E., Meyerowitz, E.M. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Function and regulation of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA. Goto, K., Meyerowitz, E.M. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The petunia ortholog of Arabidopsis SUPERMAN plays a distinct role in floral organ morphogenesis. Nakagawa, H., Ferrario, S., Angenent, G.C., Kobayashi, A., Takatsuji, H. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The Arabidopsis SUPERMAN protein is able to specifically bind DNA through its single Cys2-His2 zinc finger motif. Dathan, N., Zaccaro, L., Esposito, S., Isernia, C., Omichinski, J.G., Riccio, A., Pedone, C., Di Blasio, B., Fattorusso, R., Pedone, P.V. Nucleic Acids Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis. Bowman, J.L., Sakai, H., Jack, T., Weigel, D., Mayer, U., Meyerowitz, E.M. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Conservation and Diversification of Meristem Maintenance Mechanism in Oryza sativa: Function of the FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER2 Gene. Suzaki, T., Toriba, T., Fujimoto, M., Tsutsumi, N., Kitano, H., Hirano, H.Y. Plant Cell Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. NMR structure of the single QALGGH zinc finger domain from the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN protein. Isernia, C., Bucci, E., Leone, M., Zaccaro, L., Di Lello, P., Digilio, G., Esposito, S., Saviano, M., Di Blasio, B., Pedone, C., Pedone, P.V., Fattorusso, R. Chembiochem (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Whorl-specific expression of the SUPERMAN gene of Arabidopsis is mediated by cis elements in the transcribed region. Ito, T., Sakai, H., Meyerowitz, E.M. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. The gene FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1 regulates floral meristem size in rice and encodes a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase orthologous to Arabidopsis CLAVATA1. Suzaki, T., Sato, M., Ashikari, M., Miyoshi, M., Nagato, Y., Hirano, H.Y. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Ectopic hypermethylation of flower-specific genes in Arabidopsis. Jacobsen, S.E., Sakai, H., Finnegan, E.J., Cao, X., Meyerowitz, E.M. Curr. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Site specificity of the Arabidopsis METI DNA methyltransferase demonstrated through hypermethylation of the superman locus. Kishimoto, N., Sakai, H., Jackson, J., Jacobsen, S.E., Meyerowitz, E.M., Dennis, E.S., Finnegan, E.J. Plant Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. ARGONAUTE4 control of locus-specific siRNA accumulation and DNA and histone methylation. Zilberman, D., Cao, X., Jacobsen, S.E. Science (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Alteration of floral organ identity in rice through ectopic expression of OsMADS16. Lee, S., Jeon, J.S., An, K., Moon, Y.H., Lee, S., Chung, Y.Y., An, G. Planta (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Ectopic expression of SUPERMAN suppresses development of petals and stamens. Yun, J.Y., Weigel, D., Lee, I. Plant Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of the arabidopsis DRM methyltransferases in de novo DNA methylation and gene silencing. Cao, X., Jacobsen, S.E. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Carpel, a new Arabidopsis epi-mutant of the SUPERMAN gene: phenotypic analysis and DNA methylation status. Rohde, A., Grunau, C., De Beck, L., Van Montagu, M., Rosenthal, A., Boerjan, W. Plant Cell Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities