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Gene Review

ipaD  -  invasion protein

Shigella flexneri 5a str. M90T

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Disease relevance of ipaD


High impact information on ipaD

  • Using lacZ transcriptional fusions, we found that transcription of virA and four ipaH genes, but not that of the ipaBCDA and mxi operons, was markedly increased during growth in the presence of Congo red and in an ipaD mutant, two conditions in which secretion through the Mxi-Spa machinery is enhanced [3].
  • Here, we show that ipaB and ipaD mutations lead to enhanced secretion of a set of about 15 proteins [4].
  • Furthermore, both delta ipaC hly(low) and delta ipaD hly(low) killed through apoptosis as shown by both changes in ultrastructural morphology and fragmentation of the host cell DNA [5].
  • The DNA sequences of S. dysenteriae ipaBC genes were very similar to those of S. flexneri M90T and S. flexneri YSH6000, but ipaD differed by 22 codons from that of S. flexneri [6].
  • The 4.0 kb RNA was the transcript for the operon encoding the 24, 18 kD, IpaB and C proteins and the 4.5 kb RNA for the ipaD gene [7].

Other interactions of ipaD

  • Genes ipaB, ipaC and ipaD mapped to contiguous 4.6-kilobase (kb) and 1.0-kb HindIII fragments contained within a larger (23-kb) BamHI fragment [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ipaD

  • To overcome the lack of specificity for individual antigens in the water-extract enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the ipaD gene from S. flexneri has been cloned, expressed to a high level, and purified for use in a new ELISA for the determination of the levels of antibody against IpaD in monkeys and humans challenged with shigellae [9].


  1. IpaD of Shigella flexneri is independently required for regulation of Ipa protein secretion and efficient insertion of IpaB and IpaC into host membranes. Picking, W.L., Nishioka, H., Hearn, P.D., Baxter, M.A., Harrington, A.T., Blocker, A., Picking, W.D. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of Shigella flexneri ipaC and ipaH gene sequences for the general identification of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Venkatesan, M.M., Buysse, J.M., Kopecko, D.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of type III secretion in Shigella flexneri is associated with differential control of transcription of genes encoding secreted proteins. Demers, B., Sansonetti, P.J., Parsot, C. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Enhanced secretion through the Shigella flexneri Mxi-Spa translocon leads to assembly of extracellular proteins into macromolecular structures. Parsot, C., Ménard, R., Gounon, P., Sansonetti, P.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. Zychlinsky, A., Kenny, B., Ménard, R., Prévost, M.C., Holland, I.B., Sansonetti, P.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence of the ipaBCD structural genes of Shigella dysenteriae. Yao, R., Palchaudhuri, S. Mol. Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Functional organization and nucleotide sequence of virulence Region-2 on the large virulence plasmid in Shigella flexneri 2a. Sasakawa, C., Adler, B., Tobe, T., Okada, N., Nagai, S., Komatsu, K., Yoshikawa, M. Mol. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular cloning of invasion plasmid antigen (ipa) genes from Shigella flexneri: analysis of ipa gene products and genetic mapping. Buysse, J.M., Stover, C.K., Oaks, E.V., Venkatesan, M., Kopecko, D.J. J. Bacteriol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Antibody response of monkeys to invasion plasmid antigen D after infection with Shigella spp. Oaks, E.V., Picking, W.D., Picking, W.L. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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