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ipaC  -  invasion protein

Shigella flexneri 5a str. M90T

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Disease relevance of ipaC

  • In this study, we report that laboratory-passaged strains of Shigella spp. and EIEC that were invasion and Sereny test negative were unable to hybridize to the ipaC DNA probe [1].
  • Use of Shigella flexneri ipaC and ipaH gene sequences for the general identification of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli [1].

High impact information on ipaC

  • In mutants of some genes encoding the secretion machinery the organelle was absent, whereas ipaB and ipaC mutants displayed normal secretons [2].
  • When macrophages were infected with the noninvasive ipaC mutant, the invasiveness and induction of membrane extension were dramatically reduced as compared with that of YSH6000 [3].
  • Furthermore, both delta ipaC hly(low) and delta ipaD hly(low) killed through apoptosis as shown by both changes in ultrastructural morphology and fragmentation of the host cell DNA [4].
  • This IpaC effect may correlate with its ability to interact with model membranes at physiological pH and to promote entry by an ipaC mutant of S. flexneri [5].
  • Plasmids expressing His6-IpgC either alone or together with IpaB or IpaC under the control of an IPTG-inducible lac promoter were introduced into ipgC, ipaB or ipaC mutants [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of ipaC


Biological context of ipaC

  • Both delta ipaC hly(low) and delta ipaD hly(low) were cytotoxic whilst delta ipaB hly(low) and a hly(low) strain cured of shigella's pathogenicity plasmid were not [4].
  • A lambda gt11 ipaC gene library was screened with the antisera and antibodies [8].
  • On the basis of our data, we suggest that an operon comprising ippI, ipaB, and ipaC is positively regulated by IpaR protein which has a trans effect on a DNA sequence upstream of the ippI promoter [9].
  • The products of the ipaB, ipaC, and ipaD genes are involved in the expression of the invasive phenotype in all species of Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) [1].
  • Analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotype) showed that the environmental isolates shared ribotypes with a collection of clinical isolates, but in contrast to the clinical isolates, 10 of the 11 environmental isolates were either negative or carried deletions in the plasmid-encoded invasion-associated genes ipaB, ipaC, and ipaD [10].

Anatomical context of ipaC

  • Some recombinant proteins did not complement the ipaC mutant for entry into HeLa cells, lysis of erythrocytes, or escape from the phagocytic vacuole, which indicates that IpaC plays an active role in these processes and does not act solely as a chaperone for IpaB [11].

Other interactions of ipaC


  1. Use of Shigella flexneri ipaC and ipaH gene sequences for the general identification of Shigella spp. and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli. Venkatesan, M.M., Buysse, J.M., Kopecko, D.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. The tripartite type III secreton of Shigella flexneri inserts IpaB and IpaC into host membranes. Blocker, A., Gounon, P., Larquet, E., Niebuhr, K., Cabiaux, V., Parsot, C., Sansonetti, P. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Shigella invasion of macrophage requires the insertion of IpaC into the host plasma membrane. Functional analysis of IpaC. Kuwae, A., Yoshida, S., Tamano, K., Mimuro, H., Suzuki, T., Sasakawa, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. IpaB mediates macrophage apoptosis induced by Shigella flexneri. Zychlinsky, A., Kenny, B., Ménard, R., Prévost, M.C., Holland, I.B., Sansonetti, P.J. Mol. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Interaction of Shigella flexneri IpaC with model membranes correlates with effects on cultured cells. Tran, N., Serfis, A.B., Osiecki, J.C., Picking, W.L., Coye, L., Davis, R., Picking, W.D. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The secreted IpaB and IpaC invasins and their cytoplasmic chaperone IpgC are required for intercellular dissemination of Shigella flexneri. Page, A.L., Ohayon, H., Sansonetti, P.J., Parsot, C. Cell. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Detection of virulent Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli by induction of the 43 kDa invasion plasmid antigen, ipaC. Shamlal, R., Rajarathnam, S., Sankaran, K., Ramachandran, V., Subrahmanyam, Y.V., Nair, G.B., Macaden, R., Roy, R.K. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification and characterization of B-cell epitopes of IpaC, an invasion-associated protein of Shigella flexneri. Phalipon, A., Arondel, J., Nato, F., Rouyre, S., Mazie, J.C., Sansonetti, P.J. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Nucleotide sequence and transcriptional regulation of a positive regulatory gene of Shigella dysenteriae. Yao, R., Palchaudhuri, S. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  10. Isolation of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and S. flexneri strains from surface waters in Bangladesh: comparative molecular analysis of environmental Shigella isolates versus clinical strains. Faruque, S.M., Khan, R., Kamruzzaman, M., Yamasaki, S., Ahmad, Q.S., Azim, T., Nair, G.B., Takeda, Y., Sack, D.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Functional analysis of the Shigella flexneri IpaC invasin by insertional mutagenesis. Bârzu, S., Benjelloun-Touimi, Z., Phalipon, A., Sansonetti, P., Parsot, C. Infect. Immun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Nucleotide sequence of the invasion plasmid antigen B and C genes (ipaB and ipaC) of Shigella flexneri. Baudry, B., Kaczorek, M., Sansonetti, P.J. Microb. Pathog. (1988) [Pubmed]
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