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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Shigella


High impact information on Shigella


Chemical compound and disease context of Shigella

  • The first tetracycline-resistant bacterium, Shigella dysenteriae, was isolated in 1953 [11].
  • Sulfamethoxazole alone was effective against only 62% of the Shigella isolates tested, but mixture with trimethoprim in a 20:1 ratio yielded a highly active in vitro combination [12].
  • Forty-two adults who had Shigella isolated from stool (26 symptomatic, 16 asymptomatic) received a single oral dose of tetracycline hydrochloride (2.5 g) [13].
  • Interaction of Ipa proteins of Shigella flexneri with alpha5beta1 integrin promotes entry of the bacteria into mammalian cells [14].
  • The serum antitoxin response to the cytotoxin contained in preparations of Shigella dysenteriae 1 (Shiga's bacillus) exotoxin was studied in natural and experimental infections of man [15].

Biological context of Shigella

  • This variability in cyclic AMP response to Shigella toxin and the disparity between Shigella and cholera toxins' effects on mucosal cyclic AMP are probably the result of the different kinetics of adenylate cyclase activated by these enterotoxins [16].
  • Deletion mutants in the invasion invasion plasmid antigen B (ipaB) of Shigella flexneri are not cytotoxic [17].
  • Infection by the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Shigella flexneri stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation of host cell proteins, but the kinases involved and their effects on the regulation of cell signaling pathways during bacterial entry remain largely undefined [18].
  • Evidence is presented that endocytosis is involved in the transport to the cytosol of the cytotoxin from Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shiga toxin, which acts by removal of a single adenine residue in 28-S ribosomal RNA [19].
  • Using transfection experiments, we show the differential recruitment of the two plastin isoforms (T- and L-) into Shigella entry zones [20].

Anatomical context of Shigella


Gene context of Shigella


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Shigella


  1. E. coli hemolysin E (HlyE, ClyA, SheA): X-ray crystal structure of the toxin and observation of membrane pores by electron microscopy. Wallace, A.J., Stillman, T.J., Atkins, A., Jamieson, S.J., Bullough, P.A., Green, J., Artymiuk, P.J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Structure of the detoxification catalyst mercuric ion reductase from Bacillus sp. strain RC607. Schiering, N., Kabsch, W., Moore, M.J., Distefano, M.D., Walsh, C.T., Pai, E.F. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Infectious disease surveillance during emergency relief to Bhutanese refugees in Nepal. Marfin, A.A., Moore, J., Collins, C., Biellik, R., Kattel, U., Toole, M.J., Moore, P.S. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Monoclonal immunoglobulin A antibody directed against serotype-specific epitope of Shigella flexneri lipopolysaccharide protects against murine experimental shigellosis. Phalipon, A., Kaufmann, M., Michetti, P., Cavaillon, J.M., Huerre, M., Sansonetti, P., Kraehenbuhl, J.P. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Transfer of ampicillin resistance from Shigella dysenteriae type 1 to Escherichia coli. Penaranda, M.E., Mata, L.J. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Cadherin expression is required for the spread of Shigella flexneri between epithelial cells. Sansonetti, P.J., Mounier, J., Prévost, M.C., Mège, R.M. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Diarrheal disease during Operation Desert Shield. Hyams, K.C., Bourgeois, A.L., Merrell, B.R., Rozmajzl, P., Escamilla, J., Thornton, S.A., Wasserman, G.M., Burke, A., Echeverria, P., Green, K.Y. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Downregulation of bactericidal peptides in enteric infections: a novel immune escape mechanism with bacterial DNA as a potential regulator. Islam, D., Bandholtz, L., Nilsson, J., Wigzell, H., Christensson, B., Agerberth, B., Gudmundsson, G. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. DNA supercoiling and environmental regulation of virulence gene expression in Shigella flexneri. Dorman, C.J., Bhriain, N.N., Higgins, C.F. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Complement-mediated bactericidal system: evidence for a new pathway of complement action. Moreau, S.C., Skarnes, R.C. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Chopra, I., Roberts, M. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigellae isolated in Michigan. Gordon, R.C., Thompson, T.R., Carlson, W., Dyke, J.W., Stevens, L.I. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  13. Single-dose tetracycline therapy for shigellosis in adults. Pickering, L.K., DuPont, H.L., Olarte, J. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  14. Interaction of Ipa proteins of Shigella flexneri with alpha5beta1 integrin promotes entry of the bacteria into mammalian cells. Watarai, M., Funato, S., Sasakawa, C. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Pathogenesis of shigella diarrhea. Serum anticytotoxin antibody response produced by toxigenic and nontoxigenic Shigella dysenteriae 1. Keusch, G.T., Jacewicz, M., Levine, M.M., Hornick, R.B., Kochwa, S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of intestinal mucosal adenylate cyclase by Shigella dysenteriae I enterotoxin. Charney, A.N., Gots, R.E., Formal, S.B., Giannella, R.A. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  17. A bacterial invasin induces macrophage apoptosis by binding directly to ICE. Chen, Y., Smith, M.R., Thirumalai, K., Zychlinsky, A. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Abl tyrosine kinases are required for infection by Shigella flexneri. Burton, E.A., Plattner, R., Pendergast, A.M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Endocytosis from coated pits of Shiga toxin: a glycolipid-binding protein from Shigella dysenteriae 1. Sandvig, K., Olsnes, S., Brown, J.E., Petersen, O.W., van Deurs, B. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Cytoskeletal rearrangements and the functional role of T-plastin during entry of Shigella flexneri into HeLa cells. Adam, T., Arpin, M., Prévost, M.C., Gounon, P., Sansonetti, P.J. J. Cell Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Rho family GTPase Cdc42 is essential for the actin-based motility of Shigella in mammalian cells. Suzuki, T., Mimuro, H., Miki, H., Takenawa, T., Sasaki, T., Nakanishi, H., Takai, Y., Sasakawa, C. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Binding of the Shigella protein IpaA to vinculin induces F-actin depolymerization. Bourdet-Sicard, R., Rüdiger, M., Jockusch, B.M., Gounon, P., Sansonetti, P.J., Nhieu, G.T. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Initial steps of Shigella infection depend on the cholesterol/sphingolipid raft-mediated CD44-IpaB interaction. Lafont, F., Tran Van Nhieu, G., Hanada, K., Sansonetti, P., van der Goot, F.G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Bacterial invasion of fibroblasts induces interferon production. Hess, C.B., Niesel, D.W., Cho, Y.J., Klimpel, G.R. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  25. Caspase-1 activation of IL-1beta and IL-18 are essential for Shigella flexneri-induced inflammation. Sansonetti, P.J., Phalipon, A., Arondel, J., Thirumalai, K., Banerjee, S., Akira, S., Takeda, K., Zychlinsky, A. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Connexin-dependent inter-cellular communication increases invasion and dissemination of Shigella in epithelial cells. Tran Van Nhieu, G., Clair, C., Bruzzone, R., Mesnil, M., Sansonetti, P., Combettes, L. Nat. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of the CDC42 effector N-WASP by the Shigella flexneri IcsA protein promotes actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex and bacterial actin-based motility. Egile, C., Loisel, T.P., Laurent, V., Li, R., Pantaloni, D., Sansonetti, P.J., Carlier, M.F. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Randomised comparison of ciprofloxacin suspension and pivmecillinam for childhood shigellosis. Salam, M.A., Dhar, U., Khan, W.A., Bennish, M.L. Lancet (1998) [Pubmed]
  29. Vinculin proteolysis unmasks an ActA homolog for actin-based Shigella motility. Laine, R.O., Zeile, W., Kang, F., Purich, D.L., Southwick, F.S. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Endocytosis and intracellular transport of the glycolipid-binding ligand Shiga toxin in polarized MDCK cells. Sandvig, K., Prydz, K., Ryd, M., van Deurs, B. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Lipid A from endotoxin: antigenic activities of purified fractions in liposomes. Banerji, B., Alving, C.R. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Molecular dissection of VirB, a key regulator of the virulence cascade of Shigella flexneri. Beloin, C., McKenna, S., Dorman, C.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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