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MeSH Review

Health Expenditures

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High impact information on Health Expenditures

  • Secretion of drugs and their metabolites from blood to luminal fluid in the nephron is a protein-mediated process that normally involves either the direct or indirect expenditure of energy [1].
  • Disability caused by length of disease and years lived with disability can be quantified monetarily for epilepsy, and the total health expenditures of developed and developing countries can be compared [2].
  • INTERPRETATION: PSA screening is costly, but even universal screening would consume a smaller share of national health expenditures than previous studies have suggested [3].
  • DATA SOURCES: We estimate premiums and health expenditures for a 5 percent sample of Californians from the 1990 U.S. Census (the Public Use Microdata Sample) and use data from Blue Cross of California to adjust for regional price differences in services [4].
  • This article describes the CMS hierarchical condition categories (HCC) model implemented in 2004 to adjust Medicare capitation payments to private health care plans for the health expenditure risk of their enrollees [5].

Associations of Health Expenditures with chemical compounds

  • METHODS: The study is based on data from 1994 out-of-pocket health expenditure survey carried out through interviews of randomly selected adults in two major cities of Croatia, Zagreb and Split [6].
  • Applied to 1982 data for Botswana, the analysis reveals that treating 80% of patients through ambulatory R and E regimes would have reduced total health expenditures for tuberculosis care by two thirds compared to inpatient regimes based on TH, and the number of people complying and cured would have doubled [7].

Gene context of Health Expenditures

  • Thus, 1.9% of total health expenditures for children was attributable to ADHD [8].
  • The focus of this study is on the impact of World Bank structural adjustment operations on health expenditures and outcomes [9].
  • Eliminating fixed costs: Part II--A pathway to reduced health expenditures [10].
  • Our analysis suggests that in 2001 the overall magnitude of informal payments lay between 16.2 and 50.9 billion HUF (euro 64.8-euro 203.6 million, US$ 77.1-242.4 million), which amounted to 1.5-4.6% of total health expenditures in Hungary [11].
  • In a survey conducted in 1998/99, annual direct expenditures for COPD treatment per patient in Europe ranged from Euro 530 in France to Euro 3238 in Spain. There was a differential increase in COPD prevalence predominantly related to an aging patient population, with a high incidence of exposure to cigarette smoke [12].


  1. Human renal organic anion transporters: characteristics and contributions to drug and drug metabolite excretion. Robertson, E.E., Rankin, G.O. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Overview: epilepsy surgery in developing countries. Wieser, H.G., Silfvenius, H. Epilepsia (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Current and projected annual direct costs of screening asymptomatic men for prostate cancer using prostate-specific antigen. Krahn, M.D., Coombs, A., Levy, I.G. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Redistributional consequences of community rating. Goldman, D.P., Leibowitz, A., Buchanan, J.L., Keesey, J. Health services research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Risk adjustment of Medicare capitation payments using the CMS-HCC model. Pope, G.C., Kautter, J., Ellis, R.P., Ash, A.S., Ayanian, J.Z., Lezzoni, L.I., Ingber, M.J., Levy, J.M., Robst, J. Health care financing review. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Out-of-pocket payments for health care in Croatia: implications for equity. Mastilica, M., Bozikov, J. Croat. Med. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Cost savings from alternative treatments for tuberculosis. Barnum, H.N. Social science & medicine (1982) (1986) [Pubmed]
  8. Children and adolescents with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: 1. Prevalence and cost of care. Burd, L., Klug, M.G., Coumbe, M.J., Kerbeshian, J. J. Child Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Health and health expenditures in adjusting and non-adjusting countries. van der Gaag, J., Barham, T. Social science & medicine (1982) (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Eliminating fixed costs: Part II--A pathway to reduced health expenditures. Weil, T.P. Managed care interface. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Informal payment for health care: Evidence from Hungary. Gaal, P., Evetovits, T., McKee, M. Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Epidemiology and health economics of COPD across Europe: a critical analysis. Nowak, D., Berger, K., Lippert, B., Kilgert, K., Caeser, M., Sandtmann, R. Treatments in respiratory medicine. (2005) [Pubmed]
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