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MeSH Review

Phlebotomus Fever

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Disease relevance of Phlebotomus Fever

  • Among the acute and convalescent sera collected from 67 febrile patients, five cases were caused by sandfly fever Sicilian (SFS), six by sandfly fever Naples (SFN), and 12 by unidentified phleboviruses [1].
  • In rodents and monkeys infected with Rift Valley fever virus, ribavirin therapy resulted in reduced mortality; prophylactic administration to volunteers infected with sandfly fever virus, Sicilian strain, prevented development of illness [2].
  • METHODS: Sera from random samples of three groups of healthy soldiers aged 18-20 (n=273), 21-30 (n=497), and 40-55 years (n=285) were examined for IgG and IgM antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), and sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV), using an ELISA method [3].

High impact information on Phlebotomus Fever

  • Significant decreases from baseline control fasting serum Cr concentrations were also observed when intravenous glucose was given during sandfly fever [4].
  • Of the sandfly fever viruses known to be human pathogens (serotypes Toscana [TOS], Sicilian [SFS], and Naples [SFN]), only TOS has demonstrated neurotropic activity [5].
  • On the other hand, the preclinical data provide supportive evidence for safe parenteral administration of a Sicilian strain of sandfly fever virus inoculum to humans as a challenge model for sandfly fever disease [6].
  • The combined enhancing effect of DMSO and DEAE-dextran was also observed with mouse brain passaged, but not Vero passaged Sicilian sandfly fever virus [7].
  • Growth-hormone concentrations were strikingly elevated throughout the 24-hour study done during the febrile period of Sandfly fever infection (P less than .01) except for the period of normal nocturnal release when they were not significantly different from the baseline study [8].

Gene context of Phlebotomus Fever

  • Growth hormone and prolactin blood concentrations were measured in five human volunteers over 28-hour periods including 24 hourly samples (0800 to 0800 hours) followed by an oral glucose tolerance test (0800 to 1100 hours) both preexposure and during the peak febrile phase of a self-limited viral infection, Sandfly fever [8].
  • Using sandfly fever virus, serotypes Sicilian (SFSV) and Naples (SFNV), as antigens for immunoblot, TOSV antibody-positive sera cross-reacted with the corresponding N proteins [9].


  1. Evaluation of arthropod-borne viruses and other infectious disease pathogens as the causes of febrile illnesses in the Khartoum Province of Sudan. McCarthy, M.C., Haberberger, R.L., Salib, A.W., Soliman, B.A., El-Tigani, A., Khalid, I.O., Watts, D.M. J. Med. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Prospects for treatment of viral hemorrhagic fevers with ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Huggins, J.W. Rev. Infect. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Prevalence of antibodies to West Nile fever, sandfly fever Sicilian, and sandfly fever Naples viruses in healthy adults in Israel. Cohen, D., Zaide, Y., Karasenty, E., Schwarz, M., LeDuc, J.W., Slepon, R., Ksiazek, T.G., Shemer, J., Green, M.S. Public health reviews. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Relationship between serum chromium concentrations and glucose utilization in normal and infected subjects. Pekarek, R.S., Hauer, E.C., Rayfield, E.J., Wannemacher, R.W., Beisel, W.R. Diabetes (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Infections due to sandfly fever virus serotype Toscana in Spain. Mendoza-Montero, J., Gámez-Rueda, M.I., Navarro-Marí, J.M., de la Rosa-Fraile, M., Oyonarte-Gómez, S. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Experimental infection of nonhuman primates with sandfly fever virus. McClain, D.J., Summers, P.L., Pratt, W.D., Davis, K.J., Jennings, G.B. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Dimethyl sulfoxide enhancement of phlebotomus fever virus plaque formation. McCown, J.M., Brandt, W.E., Bancroft, W.H., Russell, P.K. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Circadian growth hormone and prolactin blood concentration during a self-limited viral infection and artificial hyperthermia in man. Bunner, D.L., Morris, E., Smallridge, R.C. Metab. Clin. Exp. (1984) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunoblot detection of antibodies to Toscana virus. Schwarz, T.F., Gilch, S., Pauli, C., Jäger, G. J. Med. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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