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Chemical Compound Review

ICN 1229     1-[3,4-dihydroxy-5- (hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2...

Synonyms: AGN-PC-0092T8, AC-988, AG-B-80765, SureCN4064991, ACN-S001314, ...
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Disease relevance of ICN 1229

  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with chronic hepatitis C, initial therapy with interferon and ribavirin was more effective than treatment with interferon alone [1].
  • RESULTS: At the completion of treatment, serum levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA were undetectable in 141 of the 173 patients who were treated with interferon and ribavirin and in 80 of the 172 patients who were treated with interferon alone (82 percent vs. 47 percent, P<0.001) [2].
  • We evaluated a new antiviral agent, ribavirin, in the treatment of infants hospitalized with lower-respiratory-tract disease from respiratory syncytial virus [3].
  • A total of 173 patients were randomly assigned to receive standard-dose recombinant interferon alfa-2b concurrently with ribavirin (1000 to 1200 mg orally per day, depending on body weight) for six months, and 172 patients were assigned to receive interferon and placebo [2].
  • In the high-dose group there were fewer lower respiratory tract infections (7, vs. 20 in the control group; P = 0.01), fewer hospitalizations (6, vs. 18 in the control group; P = 0.02), fewer hospital days (43, vs. 128 in the control group; P = 0.02), fewer days in the intensive care unit (P = 0.05), and less use of ribavirin (P = 0.05) [4].

Psychiatry related information on ICN 1229

  • Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group [1].
  • Clinically, HRC 203-treated mice behaved normally, in contrast to ribavirin-treated mice, which developed lethargy and abnormal fur texture [5].
  • In addition, assignment to weight-based ribavirin treatment and history of depression were associated with increased likelihood of developing moderate to severe depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.3 to 5.6, p < .01, and OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.3 to 8.1, p < .01, respectively) [6].
  • AIM: To clarify the importance of alcohol consumption on response rates in patients undergoing treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin [7].
  • The time-course of ribavirin-provoked changes of basal and AMPH-induced motor activities in rats [8].

High impact information on ICN 1229


Chemical compound and disease context of ICN 1229


Biological context of ICN 1229


Anatomical context of ICN 1229


Associations of ICN 1229 with other chemical compounds


Gene context of ICN 1229

  • The greater efficacy of combination therapy with IFN-alpha plus ribavirin may be related to its ability to suppress HCV-specific IL-10 production [28].
  • These results suggest that plasma concentrations of immunoreactive CXCL10 may be a predictor of responsiveness or nonresponsiveness to antiviral therapy with pegylated interferon (IFN) with or without ribavirin [29].
  • The effect of ribavirin on the expression of B7 molecules and on CHS responses was neutralized by IL-10 administration in BALB/c and by anti-IL-10 Ab in C57BL/6 [30].
  • Because IFN-beta expression itself was reduced in the ribavirin-treated cells, we further investigated the mechanism for up-regulation of the IFN-signaling pathway [31].
  • In specific DNA pull-down assays, we observed that ribavirin enhanced RSV-induced STAT-1 binding to the ISRE [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ICN 1229

  • The mean length of the hospital stay was 13.3 days after treatment with ribavirin and 15.0 with placebo (P = 0.04) [9].
  • Among the 14 infants who received ribavirin, the mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.9 days (as compared with 9.9 days among the 14 who received placebo; P = 0.01), and the mean length of supplemental oxygen use was 8.7 days (as compared with 13.5 days; P = 0.01) [9].
  • Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study [3].
  • Interferon and ribavirin vs interferon alone in the re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C previously nonresponsive to interferon: A meta-analysis of randomized trials [32].
  • STUDY SELECTION: Included studies were randomized, controlled clinical trials comparing interferon and ribavirin with interferon alone and reporting virological and biochemical outcomes after a follow-up period [32].


  1. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin as initial treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. McHutchison, J.G., Gordon, S.C., Schiff, E.R., Shiffman, M.L., Lee, W.M., Rustgi, V.K., Goodman, Z.D., Ling, M.H., Cort, S., Albrecht, J.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Interferon alfa-2b alone or in combination with ribavirin for the treatment of relapse of chronic hepatitis C. International Hepatitis Interventional Therapy Group. Davis, G.L., Esteban-Mur, R., Rustgi, V., Hoefs, J., Gordon, S.C., Trepo, C., Shiffman, M.L., Zeuzem, S., Craxi, A., Ling, M.H., Albrecht, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Aerosolized ribavirin treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial viral infection. A randomized double-blind study. Hall, C.B., McBride, J.T., Walsh, E.E., Bell, D.M., Gala, C.L., Hildreth, S., Ten Eyck, L.G., Hall, W.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Prophylactic administration of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin to high-risk infants and young children. The Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immune Globulin Study Group. Groothuis, J.R., Simoes, E.A., Levin, M.J., Hall, C.B., Long, C.E., Rodriguez, W.J., Arrobio, J., Meissner, H.C., Fulton, D.R., Welliver, R.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Targeted delivery of ribavirin improves outcome of murine viral fulminant hepatitis via enhanced anti-viral activity. Levy, G.A., Adamson, G., Phillips, M.J., Scrocchi, L.A., Fung, L., Biessels, P., Ng, N.F., Ghanekar, A., Rowe, A., Ma, M.X., Levy, A., Koscik, C., He, W., Gorczynski, R., Brookes, S., Woods, C., McGilvray, I.D., Bell, D. Hepatology (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Depression during pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin therapy: prevalence and prediction. Raison, C.L., Borisov, A.S., Broadwell, S.D., Capuron, L., Woolwine, B.J., Jacobson, I.M., Nemeroff, C.B., Miller, A.H. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. The impact of past alcohol use on treatment response rates in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Chang, A., Skole, K., Gautam, M., Schmutz, J., Black, M., Thomas, R., Horwitz, B., Friedenberg, F.K. Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The time-course of ribavirin-provoked changes of basal and AMPH-induced motor activities in rats. Janać, B., Pesić, V., Peković, S., Rakić, L., Stojiljković, M. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. A controlled trial of aerosolized ribavirin in infants receiving mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory syncytial virus infection. Smith, D.W., Frankel, L.R., Mathers, L.H., Tang, A.T., Ariagno, R.L., Prober, C.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Lassa fever. Effective therapy with ribavirin. McCormick, J.B., King, I.J., Webb, P.A., Scribner, C.L., Craven, R.B., Johnson, K.M., Elliott, L.H., Belmont-Williams, R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. The broad-spectrum antiviral ribonucleoside ribavirin is an RNA virus mutagen. Crotty, S., Maag, D., Arnold, J.J., Zhong, W., Lau, J.Y., Hong, Z., Andino, R., Cameron, C.E. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Ribavirin antagonizes the effect of azidothymidine on HIV replication. Vogt, M.W., Hartshorn, K.L., Furman, P.A., Chou, T.C., Fyfe, J.A., Coleman, L.A., Crumpacker, C., Schooley, R.T., Hirsch, M.S. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutagenic Effect of Ribavirin on Hepatitis C Nonstructural 5B Quasispecies In Vitro and During Antiviral Therapy. Hofmann, W.P., Polta, A., Herrmann, E., Mihm, U., Kronenberger, B., Sonntag, T., Lohmann, V., Schönberger, B., Zeuzem, S., Sarrazin, C. Gastroenterology (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Antiviral therapy: current concepts and practices. Bean, B. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. A single mutation in poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase confers resistance to mutagenic nucleotide analogs via increased fidelity. Pfeiffer, J.K., Kirkegaard, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Ribavirin treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial viral infection. A controlled double-blind study in young adults. Hall, C.B., Walsh, E.E., Hruska, J.F., Betts, R.F., Hall, W.J. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of immune functions by antiviral drugs. Heagy, W., Crumpacker, C., Lopez, P.A., Finberg, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Antiviral action of ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C. Pawlotsky, J.M., Dahari, H., Neumann, A.U., Hezode, C., Germanidis, G., Lonjon, I., Castera, L., Dhumeaux, D. Gastroenterology (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Congenital anomalies induced in hamster embryos with ribavirin. Kilham, L., Ferm, V.H. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Ribavirin suppresses replication of lymphadenopathy-associated virus in cultures of human adult T lymphocytes. McCormick, J.B., Getchell, J.P., Mitchell, S.W., Hicks, D.R. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Ribavirin for syncytial giant cell hepatitis. Roberts, E., Ford-Jones, E.L., Phillips, M.J. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  22. Ribavirin enters cerebrospinal fluid. Crumpacker, C., Bubley, G., Lucey, D., Hussey, S., Connor, J. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in immunocompromised adults. Englund, J.A., Sullivan, C.J., Jordan, M.C., Dehner, L.P., Vercellotti, G.M., Balfour, H.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Hepatitis B outbreak among chimpanzees at the London Zoo. Zuckerman, A.J., Thornton, A., Howard, C.R., Tsiquaye, K.N., Jones, D.M., Brambell, M.R. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Immunologic reconstitution in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Lane, H.C., Fauci, A.S. Ann. Intern. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Triple therapy with amantadine in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C: a placebo-controlled trial. Berg, T., Kronenberger, B., Hinrichsen, H., Gerlach, T., Buggisch, P., Herrmann, E., Spengler, U., Goeser, T., Nasser, S., Wursthorn, K., Pape, G.R., Hopf, U., Zeuzem, S. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Sequential impact of tiazofurin and ribavirin on the enzymic program of the bone marrow. Prajda, N., Hata, Y., Abonyi, M., Singhal, R.L., Weber, G. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Hepatitis C virus-specific T-cell reactivity during interferon and ribavirin treatment in chronic hepatitis C. Cramp, M.E., Rossol, S., Chokshi, S., Carucci, P., Williams, R., Naoumov, N.V. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Plasma chemokine levels correlate with the outcome of antiviral therapy in patients with hepatitis C. Butera, D., Marukian, S., Iwamaye, A.E., Hembrador, E., Chambers, T.J., Di Bisceglie, A.M., Charles, E.D., Talal, A.H., Jacobson, I.M., Rice, C.M., Dustin, L.B. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Contact hypersensitivity responses following ribavirin treatment in vivo are influenced by type 1 cytokine polarization, regulation of IL-10 expression, and costimulatory signaling. Tam, R.C., Lim, C., Bard, J., Pai, B. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Ribavirin treatment up-regulates antiviral gene expression via the interferon-stimulated response element in respiratory syncytial virus-infected epithelial cells. Zhang, Y., Jamaluddin, M., Wang, S., Tian, B., Garofalo, R.P., Casola, A., Brasier, A.R. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Interferon and ribavirin vs interferon alone in the re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C previously nonresponsive to interferon: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. Cummings, K.J., Lee, S.M., West, E.S., Cid-Ruzafa, J., Fein, S.G., Aoki, Y., Sulkowski, M.S., Goodman, S.N. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
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