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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Antibody Diversity

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High impact information on Antibody Diversity

  • A novel cytidine deaminase affects antibody diversity [1].
  • Antibody diversity is generated by the combinatorial association of multiple distinct genetic segments (variable (V), joining (J) and diversity (D) light (L) and heavy (H) chains--VL, JL and VH, D, JH) and amplified somatically by three or four different mechanisms [2].
  • Contribution of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region genes to antibody diversity [3].
  • IgH rearrangements (VH-D, D-JH) are central to the generation of antibody diversity [4].
  • These results specifically show the importance of the Arg-94 to Asp-101 side chain salt bridge in the heavy-chain CDR3 conformation and suggest that residues distant from the binding site play an important role in antibody diversity and inducible complementarity [5].

Biological context of Antibody Diversity


Anatomical context of Antibody Diversity

  • The bovine immune system appears to utilize Ig VH genes of a single family, but generates antibody diversity by extensive somatic mutation and long CDR3s which are subsequently hypermutated [8].

Associations of Antibody Diversity with chemical compounds

  • To study the molecular basis for antibody diversity and the structural basis for antigen binding, we have characterized the loss of phosphocholine (P-Cho) binding both experimentally and computationally in U10, a somatic mutant of the antibody S107 [5].

Gene context of Antibody Diversity

  • CONCLUSIONS: In humans, unlike mice, N addition enhances antibody diversity at all stages of immunoglobulin assembly, and the structural diversity of lambda CDR3 intervals is greater than that of kappa light chains [9].
  • These sites are consistent with the mini-gene or insertional hypotheses for the generation of antibody diversity but could also serve as points of recognition for a mutator enzyme or could serve to limit somatic mutation to the CDRs [10].
  • We conclude from this lack of cross-hybridization that antigenic diversity in trypanosomes, unlike antibody diversity in mammals, does not involve the linkage of a repertoire of genes for the variable N-terminal half to a single gene for the C-terminal half of the VSGs [11].
  • Results of the present study indicate that deletions/insertions together with other possible chromosomal rearrangements may play an important role in forming the genetic structure of the IGHV region, and may significantly contribute to antibody diversity [12].
  • DNA repair, antibody diversity, and aging [13].


  1. A novel cytidine deaminase affects antibody diversity. Longacre, A., Storb, U. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunoglobulin kappa light-chain diversity in rabbit is based on the 3' length heterogeneity of germ-line variable genes. Heidmann, O., Rougeon, F. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Contribution of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region genes to antibody diversity. Rabbitts, T.H., Matthyssens, G., Hamlyn, P.H. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Novel rearrangements at the immunoglobulin D locus. Inversions and fusions add to IgH somatic diversity. Meek, K.D., Hasemann, C.A., Capra, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Significant structural and functional change of an antigen-binding site by a distant amino acid substitution: proposal of a structural mechanism. Chien, N.C., Roberts, V.A., Giusti, A.M., Scharff, M.D., Getzoff, E.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Fourteen nucleotides in the second complementarity-determining region of a human heavy-chain variable region gene are identical with a sequence in a human D minigene. Wu, T.T., Kabat, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolution of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes: a VH family can last for 150-200 million years or longer. Andersson, E., Matsunaga, T. Immunogenetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Use of a single VH family and long CDR3s in the variable region of cattle Ig heavy chains. Berens, S.J., Wylie, D.E., Lopez, O.J. Int. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Frequent N addition and clonal relatedness among immunoglobulin lambda light chains expressed in rheumatoid arthritis synovia and PBL, and the influence of V lambda gene segment utilization on CDR3 length. Bridges, S.L. Mol. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Some sequence similarities among cloned mouse DNA segments that code for lambda and kappa light chains of immunoglobulins. Wu, T.T., Kabat, E.A., Bilofsky, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. The isolation of plasmids containing DNA complementary to messenger RNA for variant surface glycoproteins of Trypanosoma brucei. Hoeijmakers, J.H., Borst, P., van den Burg, J., Weissmann, C., Cross, G.A. Gene (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Determination of gene organization in the human IGHV region on single chromosomes. Chimge, N.O., Pramanik, S., Hu, G., Lin, Y., Gao, R., Shen, L., Li, H. Genes Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. DNA repair, antibody diversity, and aging. Johnson, R.C., Wang, A.C. Gerontology. (1985) [Pubmed]
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