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Gene Review

CDA  -  cytidine deaminase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CDD, Cytidine aminohydrolase, Cytidine deaminase
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Disease relevance of CDA


Psychiatry related information on CDA


High impact information on CDA


Chemical compound and disease context of CDA


Biological context of CDA


Anatomical context of CDA

  • Changes in the activities of cytidine deaminase during differentiation of HL60 cells induced by 1,25 dihydroxy D3 [2].
  • Effect of cyclosporin on the activity of cytidine deaminase and adenosine deaminase in the serum and polymorphonuclear leukocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis [24].
  • Weak correlation of serum CD activity with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r = 0.44) and C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = 0.49) implies that CD estimations supply different though related information about rheumatoid disease activity [5].
  • Synovial fluid (SF) CD activity was always less than the corresponding serum activity (mean SF/serum ratio = 0.6) in OA but up to 22 times greater than the corresponding serum activity in RA (mean SF/serum ratio = 13.1), suggesting CD production in inflammatory joints [5].
  • Evidence to support the SF neutrophil as a cell of CD origin is provided by the CD gradient running from cells to SF to synovium [5].

Associations of CDA with chemical compounds

  • In CLL a significant reduction (P less than 0-001) of AMPA, PNPase and ADA activities was observed without variation of CDA [25].
  • A dramatic increase (10-fold or more) in CDA activity was observed in the cells of some patients after only one month of cyclosporin therapy [24].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Decreased hENT-1 expression and function is causatively responsible for the acquisition of Ara-C resistance and alterations in dCK and CDA contribute to the higher concentration range [21].
  • For this purpose, each of the two forms of CDA was purified close to homogeneity and dissociated into monomers in the presence of a small amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate as a dissociating agent [26].
  • Serum osteocalcin (OC) was reduced by 25.8% (P < 0.001), while the levels of CD and pro-MMP-3 increased by 31.2% (P < 0.01) and 53.7% (P < 0.001) during prednisolone treatment compared with the off-treatment period [27].

Regulatory relationships of CDA


Other interactions of CDA

  • GUA/CD ratios were however lower and the other ratios higher in the cancerous tissues [29].
  • SF IL-8 levels (measured by an ELISA) were significantly elevated in RA compared to SNP (median 2.35 vs 0.22 ng/ml, P < 0.001), as were median levels of CD (55.8 vs 8.11 U/ml, P < 0.01), lactic acid (29.6 vs 16.6 mg/dl, P < 0.001), glucose (57.9 vs 84.5 mg/dl, P < 0.05) and the lactate to glucose ratio (0.85 vs 0.19, P < 0.001) [30].
  • SF IL-8 levels correlated strongly with CD, lactate, glucose and the lactate to glucose ratio when both disease groups were considered together (P < 0.001) [30].
  • Furthermore, for both CDA 1 and CDA 2 some substrates and inhibitors of CDA were assayed, with the aim of demonstrating different kinetic behavior between the two natural variants [26].
  • Serum cytidine deaminase as a measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CDA

  • The mean CD in pre-treatment samples was 8.64 units/ml (SD 7.09), and after treatment 7.20 units/ml (SD 3.53) [32].
  • We have examined in a preliminary study the hypothesis that serum cytidine deaminase (CD) may be valuable in the differential diagnosis of these disorders [32].
  • In this study, we have undertaken molecular cloning and purification of recombinant human CDD to elucidate the growth regulatory potential and mechanism behind the growth suppressive effect [23].
  • This strongly argues for a potential therapeutic role of CDD gene transfer in conjunction with dose-intensive cytarabine- or gemcitabine-containing chemotherapy regimen [16].
  • The timing of the peak in serum cytidine deaminase concentrations after a period of morning physiotherapy, but not during the bedrest morning, suggests that exercise accounts for the circadian rhythm, probably by increasing the lymphatic clearance from inflamed joints [33].


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  2. Changes in the activities of cytidine deaminase during differentiation of HL60 cells induced by 1,25 dihydroxy D3. Mejer, J., Mortensen, B.T. Leuk. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Human cytidine deaminase: A three-dimensional homology model of a tetrameric metallo-enzyme inferred from the crystal structure of a distantly related dimeric homologue. Costanzi, S., Vincenzetti, S., Cristalli, G., Vita, A. J. Mol. Graph. Model. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The role of cytidine deaminase and GATA1 mutations in the increased cytosine arabinoside sensitivity of Down syndrome myeloblasts and leukemia cell lines. Ge, Y., Jensen, T.L., Stout, M.L., Flatley, R.M., Grohar, P.J., Ravindranath, Y., Matherly, L.H., Taub, J.W. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Cytidine deaminase activity as a measure of acute inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Thompson, P.W., Jones, D.D., Currey, H.L. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1986) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulation of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) resistance: a review. Timmer-Bosscha, H., Mulder, N.H., de Vries, E.G. Br. J. Cancer (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Id3-mediated enhancement of cisplatin-induced apoptosis in a sarcoma cell line MG-63. Koyama, T., Suzuki, H., Imakiire, A., Yanase, N., Hata, K., Mizuguchi, J. Anticancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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  9. Manifest Anxiety Scale for evaluation of effects of granisetron in chemotherapy with CDDP and 5FU for head and neck cancer. Fujii, M., Ohno, Y., Tokumaru, Y., Imanishi, Y., Kanke, M., Tomita, T., Kanzaki, J. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. In vitro effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue on cancer cell sensitivity to cis-platinum. Ohta, H., Sakamoto, H., Satoh, K. Cancer Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deficiency causes the autosomal recessive form of the Hyper-IgM syndrome (HIGM2). Revy, P., Muto, T., Levy, Y., Geissmann, F., Plebani, A., Sanal, O., Catalan, N., Forveille, M., Dufourcq-Labelouse, R., Gennery, A., Tezcan, I., Ersoy, F., Kayserili, H., Ugazio, A.G., Brousse, N., Muramatsu, M., Notarangelo, L.D., Kinoshita, K., Honjo, T., Fischer, A., Durandy, A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel cytidine deaminase affects antibody diversity. Longacre, A., Storb, U. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. HIV-1 Vif protein binds the editing enzyme APOBEC3G and induces its degradation. Marin, M., Rose, K.M., Kozak, S.L., Kabat, D. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. C-terminal deletion of AID uncouples class switch recombination from somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. Barreto, V., Reina-San-Martin, B., Ramiro, A.R., McBride, K.M., Nussenzweig, M.C. Mol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Redox control of resistance to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (CDDP): protective effect of human thioredoxin against CDDP-induced cytotoxicity. Sasada, T., Iwata, S., Sato, N., Kitaoka, Y., Hirota, K., Nakamura, K., Nishiyama, A., Taniguchi, Y., Takabayashi, A., Yodoi, J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Resistance to cytarabine and gemcitabine and in vitro selection of transduced cells after retroviral expression of cytidine deaminase in human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Bardenheuer, W., Lehmberg, K., Rattmann, I., Brueckner, A., Schneider, A., Sorg, U.R., Seeber, S., Moritz, T., Flasshove, M. Leukemia (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Enzyme-substrate complexes of adenosine and cytidine deaminases: absence of accumulation of water adducts. Shih, P., Wolfenden, R. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytidine deaminase activity, C reactive protein, histidine, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate as measures of disease activity in psoriatic arthritis. Helliwell, P.S., Marchesoni, A., Peters, M., Platt, R., Wright, V. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Severe drug toxicity associated with a single-nucleotide polymorphism of the cytidine deaminase gene in a Japanese cancer patient treated with gemcitabine plus cisplatin. Yonemori, K., Ueno, H., Okusaka, T., Yamamoto, N., Ikeda, M., Saijo, N., Yoshida, T., Ishii, H., Furuse, J., Sugiyama, E., Kim, S.R., Kikura-Hanajiri, R., Hasegawa, R., Saito, Y., Ozawa, S., Kaniwa, N., Sawada, J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparative study of a novel nucleoside analogue (Troxatyl, troxacitabine, BCH-4556) and AraC against leukemic human tumor xenografts expressing high or low cytidine deaminase activity. Gourdeau, H., Bibeau, L., Ouellet, F., Custeau, D., Bernier, L., Bowlin, T. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of resistance to cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) in NALM-6 human B leukemia cells. Kanno, S., Hiura, T., Ohtake, T., Koiwai, K., Suzuki, H., Ujibe, M., Ishikawa, M. Clin. Chim. Acta (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Cytidine deaminase: a new genetic polymorphism demonstrated in human granulocytes. Teng, Y.S., Anderson, J.E., Giblett, E.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1975) [Pubmed]
  23. Growth inhibition of granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells by human cytidine deaminase requires the catalytic function of the protein. Gran, C., Bøyum, A., Johansen, R.F., Løvhaug, D., Seeberg, E.C. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of cyclosporin on the activity of cytidine deaminase and adenosine deaminase in the serum and polymorphonuclear leukocytes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Stancíková, M., Rovenský, J. International journal of tissue reactions. (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Blood lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Hodgkin's disease: Immunological features and enzymes of nucleoside metabolism. Ambrogi, F., Grassi, B., Ronca-Testoni, S., Ronca, G. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Isoenzymatic forms of human cytidine deaminase. Vincenzetti, S., Mariani, P.L., Cammertoni, N., Polzonetti, V., Natalini, P., Quadrini, B., Volpini, R., Vita, A. Protein Eng. Des. Sel. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Changes in biochemical markers of joint tissue metabolism in a randomized controlled trial of glucocorticoid in early rheumatoid arthritis. Sharif, M., Salisbury, C., Taylor, D.J., Kirwan, J.R. Arthritis Rheum. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. APOBEC3G targets human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. Sasada, A., Takaori-Kondo, A., Shirakawa, K., Kobayashi, M., Abudu, A., Hishizawa, M., Imada, K., Tanaka, Y., Uchiyama, T. Retrovirology (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Activities of adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase, guanase, and cytidine deaminase enzymes in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues. Canbolat, O., Durak, I., Cetin, R., Kavutcu, M., Demirci, S., Oztürk, S. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Synovial fluid interleukin-8 and neutrophil function in rheumatoid arthritis and seronegative polyarthritis. Troughton, P.R., Platt, R., Bird, H., el-Manzalawi, E., Bassiouni, M., Wright, V. Br. J. Rheumatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Serum cytidine deaminase as a measure of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Skeith, K.J., Wefuan, J., Oswald, R., Davis, P. J. Rheumatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Cytidine deaminase may be a useful marker in differentiating elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis from polymyalgia rheumatica/giant cell arteritis. Kassimos, D., Kirwan, J.R., Kyle, V., Hazleman, B., Dieppe, P. Clinical and experimental rheumatology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Circadian rhythm of serum cytidine deaminase in patients with rheumatoid arthritis during rest and exercise. Thompson, P.W., James, I.T., Wheatcroft, S., Pownall, R., Barnes, C.G. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
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