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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Indinavir urolithiasis: an emerging cause of renal colic in patients with human immunodeficiency virus.

PURPOSE: We evaluate the clinical, diagnostic and radiographic findings in patients on indinavir therapy who presented with renal colic, and propose appropriate treatment options for indinavir urolithiasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 16 patients positive for human immunodeficiency virus on indinavir were evaluated for 18 episodes of severe renal colic requiring hospitalization. Laboratory evaluation was performed in all patients followed by an imaging study. Conservative treatment included intravenous hydration, narcotic analgesics and temporary cessation of indinavir. Intervention was elected only in patients with persistent fever or intractable pain. A month after hospital discharge an excretory urogram and metabolic stone evaluation were performed. Mean followup was 9.3 months and 2 patients had recurrent symptoms. RESULTS: All patients presented with nausea or vomiting and hematuria. Imaging studies confirmed obstruction in all patients with 13 radiolucent (indinavir) and 3 radiopaque (calcium oxalate) stones. Patients with radiolucent and radiopaque stones demonstrated significant differences in urinary pH (p = 0.002) and serum creatinine (p = 0.03). Conservative therapy was successful in 11 patients (68.8%) within 48 hours and 4 patients (25%) with radiolucent calculi required endoscopic stenting for persistent fever. Metabolic stone evaluation demonstrated significant hypocitruria (less than 50 mg./24 hours) in all patients with radiolucent calculi. CONCLUSIONS: The urologist should be familiar with this growing cause of renal colic in patients on indinavir therapy. Pure indinavir stones are radiolucent and have a soft, gelatinous endoscopic appearance. Conservative treatment is successful in most patients and if intervention is deemed medically necessary, endoscopic stent placement should be the procedure of choice.[1]


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