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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of Raf-1 during experimental gastric ulcer healing is Ras-mediated and protein kinase C-independent.

Our previous study demonstrated increases in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) phosphorylation and receptor tyrosine kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1 and ERK2) activities in the ulcer margin of experimental gastric ulcer during healing. However, the intermediate steps linking activated receptor tyrosine kinase to ERKs during ulcer healing are as yet unknown. Raf-1 is upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/ERK) and can be activated by Ras-dependent and/or Ras-independent mechanisms. Therefore, we studied Raf-1 activity, its potential activators protein kinase C ( PKC) and Ras, and expression and associations of adapter proteins Shc, Grb2, and Sos during experimental gastric ulcer healing. To investigate if Raf-1-ERK activation is attributable to the epithelial component of ulcer margins, we studied the effect of EGF on PKC, Ras, and ERK activities in a rat gastric epithelial cell line (RGM1). Our results demonstrate that gastric ulceration significantly increases Raf-1 kinase activity, Grb2 and Ras protein, and Shc-Grb2 and Grb2-Sos complex levels. In contrast, PKC activity and protein level were significantly decreased in the ulcer margins. In RGM1 cells, EGF significantly increased Ras and ERK2 activities without affecting PKC activity. These findings indicate that Raf-1 activation during gastric ulcer healing is Ras mediated, involves Shc-Grb2-Sos, and is PKC-independent.[1]


  1. Activation of Raf-1 during experimental gastric ulcer healing is Ras-mediated and protein kinase C-independent. Pai, R., Jones, M.K., Tomikawa, M., Tarnawski, A.S. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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