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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Mass spectrometric quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine, ortho-tyrosine, and o,o'-dityrosine in brain tissue of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine-treated mice, a model of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease.

Oxidative stress is implicated in the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease and in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease. Oxidative species that might mediate this damage include hydroxyl radical, tyrosyl radical, or reactive nitrogen species such as peroxynitrite. In mice, we showed that MPTP markedly increased levels of o, o'-dityrosine and 3-nitrotyrosine in the striatum and midbrain but not in brain regions resistant to MPTP. These two stable compounds indicate that tyrosyl radical and reactive nitrogen species have attacked tyrosine residues. In contrast, MPTP failed to alter levels of ortho-tyrosine in any brain region we studied. This marker accumulates when hydroxyl radical oxidizes protein-bound phenylalanine residues. We also showed that treating whole-brain proteins with hydroxyl radical markedly increased levels of ortho-tyrosine in vitro. Under identical conditions, tyrosyl radical, produced by the heme protein myeloperoxidase, selectively increased levels of o,o'-dityrosine, whereas peroxynitrite increased levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and, to a lesser extent, of ortho-tyrosine. These in vivo and in vitro findings implicate reactive nitrogen species and tyrosyl radical in MPTP neurotoxicity but argue against a deleterious role for hydroxyl radical in this model. They also show that reactive nitrogen species and tyrosyl radical (and consequently protein oxidation) represent an early and previously unidentified biochemical event in MPTP-induced brain injury. This finding may be significant for understanding the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and developing neuroprotective therapies.[1]


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