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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anion transport in heart.

Anion transport proteins in mammalian cells participate in a wide variety of cell and intracellular organelle functions, including regulation of electrical activity, pH, volume, and the transport of osmolites and metabolites, and may even play a role in the control of immunological responses, cell migration, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Although significant progress over the past decade has been achieved in understanding electrogenic and electroneutral anion transport proteins in sarcolemmal and intracellular membranes, information on the molecular nature and physiological significance of many of these proteins, especially in the heart, is incomplete. Functional and molecular studies presently suggest that four primary types of sarcolemmal anion channels are expressed in cardiac cells: channels regulated by protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C, and purinergic receptors (I(Cl.PKA)); channels regulated by changes in cell volume (I(Cl.vol)); channels activated by intracellular Ca(2+) (I(Cl.Ca)); and inwardly rectifying anion channels (I( In most animal species, I(Cl.PKA) is due to expression of a cardiac isoform of the epithelial cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl(-) channel. New molecular candidates responsible for I(Cl.vol), I(Cl.Ca), and I( (ClC-3, CLCA1, and ClC-2, respectively) have recently been identified and are presently being evaluated. Two isoforms of the band 3 anion exchange protein, originally characterized in erythrocytes, are responsible for Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange, and at least two members of a large vertebrate family of electroneutral cotransporters (ENCC1 and ENCC3) are responsible for Na(+)-dependent Cl(-) cotransport in heart. A 223-amino acid protein in the outer mitochondrial membrane of most eukaryotic cells comprises a voltage-dependent anion channel. The molecular entities responsible for other types of electroneutral anion exchange or Cl(-) conductances in intracellular membranes of the sarcoplasmic reticulum or nucleus are unknown. Evidence of cardiac expression of up to five additional members of the ClC gene family suggest a rich new variety of molecular candidates that may underlie existing or novel Cl(-) channel subtypes in sarcolemmal and intracellular membranes. The application of modern molecular biological and genetic approaches to the study of anion transport proteins during the next decade holds exciting promise for eventually revealing the actual physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical significance of these unique transport processes in cardiac and other mammalian cells.[1]


  1. Anion transport in heart. Hume, J.R., Duan, D., Collier, M.L., Yamazaki, J., Horowitz, B. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
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