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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Stimulation of phospholipase D activity by oxidized LDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages.

Oxidation of LDL is an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms by which oxidized LDL exerts its atherogenic actions are poorly understood. In the present work, we show that oxidized LDL stimulates phospholipase D ( PLD) activity in mouse peritoneal macrophages and that this effect increases with the degree of LDL oxidation. Oxidative modification of LDL results in the production of lipid peroxides and the conversion of phosphatidylcholine to lysophosphatidylcholine. Although we found that lysophosphatidylcholine alone activates PLD, the stimulation of this enzyme activity by oxidized LDL is independent of lysophosphatidylcholine formation. Also, 7-ketocholesterol, the major oxysterol in oxidized LDL, failed to stimulate PLD activity. To determine the mechanism(s) whereby oxidized LDL activates PLD, the possible involvements of protein kinase C and tyrosine phosphorylation were investigated. Pretreatment of macrophages with the protein kinase C inhibitor Ro-32-0432 or downregulation of protein kinase C activity by prolonged incubation with 100 nmol/L 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not alter the stimulatory effect of oxidized LDL on PLD activation. However, oxidized LDL stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of several macrophage proteins, and preincubation of the macrophages with genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the activation of PLD by oxidized LDL. In addition, pretreatment with orthovanadate, which inhibits tyrosine phosphatases, enhanced basal and oxidized LDL-stimulated PLD activity. Pretreatment of macrophages with pertussis toxin decreased the stimulatory effect of oxidized LDL, indicating that GTP-binding proteins may also be involved in the activation of PLD by oxidized LDL. We also found that the platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists WEB 2086 and L-659,989 inhibit the oxidized LDL stimulation of PLD, suggesting a role for platelet-activating factor receptor in this process. The stimulation of the PLD pathway by oxidized LDL may be of importance in atherogenesis, because PLD activation leads to generation of important second messengers such as phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, and diacylglycerol, which are known to regulate many cellular functions.[1]


  1. Stimulation of phospholipase D activity by oxidized LDL in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Gómez-Muñoz, A., Martens, J.S., Steinbrecher, U.P. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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