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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Four cases of bleeding diathesis in children due to congenital plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency.

Congenital plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) deficiency is an extremely rare disorder characterized by a bleeding diathesis that begins in childhood due to hyperfibrinolysis as a result of decreased PAI-1 activity. We now present 4 unrelated pediatric cases of congenital PAI-1 deficiency. All 4 patients had a history of recurrent episodes of subcutaneous bleeding beginning in early childhood. These episodes were characterized by abnormal prolonged bleeding after trauma, tooth extraction, and surgical procedures, as well as by rebleeding following initial hemostasis. The 2 female patients both had symptoms compatible with hypermenorrhea. The family history was positive in 2 of the 4 patients. Hemostatic screening studies in all 4 patients revealed no abnormalities. Testing for factor XIII antigen, von Willebrand factor antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, alpha(2)-plasmin inhibitor (alpha2PI) activity, and plasminogen activity was normal. The euglobulin lysis times were shortened in all cases as compared with those in normal control subjects. None of the patients had elevated tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen levels, but PAI activity was markedly decreased in all cases. Three of the patients also had reduced levels of PAI-1 antigen. There tended to be a reduction in tPA-PAI-1 complex in all cases. In addition, 2 patients had elevated PIC (plasmin-alpha2PI complex). Tourniquet tests were performed in 2 patients, with no appreciable rise in PAI-1 activity or PAI-1 antigen levels. The administration of tranexamic acid clearly improved hemorrhagic symptoms in these patients. We considered PAI-1 deficiency to be the likely etiology of the congenital bleeding diatheses in these 4 cases.[1]


  1. Four cases of bleeding diathesis in children due to congenital plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency. Minowa, H., Takahashi, Y., Tanaka, T., Naganuma, K., Ida, S., Maki, I., Yoshioka, A. Haemostasis (1999) [Pubmed]
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