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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tourniquets


High impact information on Tourniquets

  • Enhanced in-vivo platelet release reaction, increased thromboxane synthesis, and decreased prostacyclin release after tourniquet ischaemia [6].
  • The mean plasma beta-TG and TxB2 had risen significantly within 5 min of release of the tourniquet, indicating increased in-vivo platelet release reaction and prostaglandin synthesis in these patients [6].
  • Ten minutes after the release of the tourniquets, plasma leukotriene B4 levels increased to 395 +/- 85 pg/ml, higher than 129 +/- 35 pg/ml in controls (n = 9, p less than 0.01) [7].
  • Decomplementation with cobra venom factor (n = 4) resulted in plasma C3 levels, 10% of baseline, but tourniquet release still led to pulmonary hypertension, elevated LTB4, TxB2 levels, and a decline in WBC count similar to that of untreated ischemic control animals [8].
  • After total outflow occlusion with pneumatic tourniquet, the cell-cycle nonspecific anti-neoplastic agent cis-diamminedicholoroplatinum (CDDP) was infused intra-arterially in a mean dose of 26.7 mg/m2 per infusion (2.6 infusions per patient) [1].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tourniquets


Biological context of Tourniquets


Anatomical context of Tourniquets


Associations of Tourniquets with chemical compounds

  • After the release of the tourniquet there was a rapid restoration of the phosphagen content and clearance of lactate in the ischemic leg [24].
  • In untreated animals (n = 7), tourniquet release led after 5 minutes to a rise in plasma thromboxane (Tx) B2 levels from 360 to 1702 pg/ml (p less than 0.05); after 2 hours, lymph TxB2 concentration had risen from 412 to 1598 pg/ml (p less than 0.05) [25].
  • Prior to tourniquet inflation, both OKY 046 and ketoconazole lowered plasma TxB2 levels as well as the L/P ratio (p less than 0.05) [26].
  • Self-monitoring of blood glucose: tourniquet method [27].
  • Adrenal weight and plasma corticosterone after tourniquet or ether stress were indistinguishable in the AH and H groups and were much higher and nearly identical in the intact, NH and IAH groups [28].

Gene context of Tourniquets


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tourniquets


  1. A phase II study of the efficacy of diamminedichloroplatinum (cisplatin) for the control of locally recurrent and intransit malignant melanoma of the extremities using tourniquet outflow-occlusion techniques. Bland, K.I., Kimura, A.K., Brenner, D.E., Basinger, M.A., Hirsch, M., Hawkins, I.F., Pierson, K.K., Copeland, E.M. Ann. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Quantification of damage to striated muscle after normothermic or hypothermic ischemia. Presta, M., Ragnotti, G. Clin. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Renal vein renin sampling in essential hypertension using hydralazine and the tourniquet test. Gomes, A.S., Sinaiko, A.R., Tobian, L., Cohn, J.N., Formanek, A.G., Roe, D.J., Amplatz, K. Radiology. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Acute bupivacaine toxicity as a result of venous leakage under the tourniquet cuff during a Bier block. Rosenberg, P.H., Kalso, E.A., Tuominen, M.K., Lindén, H.B. Anesthesiology (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Preemptive analgesic effects of ketorolac in ankle fracture surgery. Norman, P.H., Daley, M.D., Lindsey, R.W. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Enhanced in-vivo platelet release reaction, increased thromboxane synthesis, and decreased prostacyclin release after tourniquet ischaemia. Zahavi, J., Price, A.J., Westwick, J., Scully, M.F., Al-Hasani, S.F., Honey, A.C., Dubiel, M., Kakkar, V.V. Lancet (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Role of neutrophil adherence receptors (CD 18) in lung permeability following lower torso ischemia. Welbourn, R., Goldman, G., Kobzik, L., Paterson, I.S., Valeri, C.R., Shepro, D., Hechtman, H.B. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Leukotrienes but not complement mediate limb ischemia-induced lung injury. Klausner, J.M., Paterson, I.S., Kobzik, L., Valeri, C.R., Shepro, D., Hechtman, H.B. Ann. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Comparison of ropivacaine and lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers: a preliminary study on anesthetic efficacy and blood level. Chan, V.W., Weisbrod, M.J., Kaszas, Z., Dragomir, C. Anesthesiology (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Prolonged antagonism of opioid action with intravenous nalmefene in man. Gal, T.J., DiFazio, C.A. Anesthesiology (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. AMPA and NMDA receptor antagonists do not decrease hippocampal glutamate concentrations during transient global ischemia. Matsumoto, M., Zornow, M.H., Scheller, M.S., Strnat, M.A. Anesthesiology (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. The neurophysiologic mechanisms of tourniquet pain. The activity of neurons in the rostroventral medulla in the rat. Crews, J.C., Cahall, M., Behbehani, M.M. Anesthesiology (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparison of 2-chloroprocaine and prilocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia of the arm: a clinical study. Pitkänen, M., Kyttä, J., Rosenberg, P.H. Anaesthesia. (1993) [Pubmed]
  14. Changes in venous blood lactate, venous blood gases, and somatosensory evoked potentials after tourniquet application. Benzon, H.T., Toleikis, J.R., Meagher, L.L., Shapiro, B.A., Ts'ao, C.H., Avram, M.J. Anesthesiology (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. A North American survey of intravenous regional anesthesia. Henderson, C.L., Warriner, C.B., McEwen, J.A., Merrick, P.M. Anesth. Analg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Intravenous regional anaesthesia with 0.5% prilocaine or 0.5% chloroprocaine. A double-blind comparison in volunteers. Pitkänen, M.T., Suzuki, N., Rosenberg, P.H. Anaesthesia. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Pharmacokinetics of moxisylyte in healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion and intracavernous administration with and without a penile tourniquet. Costa, P., Bressolle, F., Mottet, N., Rouzier-Panis, R., Navratil, H., Marquer, C. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Ketamine sedation during spinal anesthesia for arthroscopic knee surgery reduced the ischemia-reperfusion injury markers. Saricaoglu, F., Dal, D., Salman, A.E., Doral, M.N., Kilinç, K., Aypar, U. Anesth. Analg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Hydralazine and the tourniquet test in renal vein renin sampling: a comparison. Gomes, A.S., Sinaiko, A.R., Tobian, L., Cohn, J.N., Formanek, G., Amplatz, K. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Levobupivacaine 0.125% and lidocaine 0.5% for intravenous regional anesthesia in volunteers. Atanassoff, P.G., Aouad, R., Hartmannsgruber, M.W., Halaszynski, T. Anesthesiology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Ropivacaine 0.2% and lidocaine 0.5% for intravenous regional anesthesia in outpatient surgery. Atanassoff, P.G., Ocampo, C.A., Bande, M.C., Hartmannsgruber, M.W., Halaszynski, T.M. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Creatine phosphokinase release as a measure of tourniquet effect on skeletal muscle. Chiu, D., Wang, H.H., Blumenthal, M.R. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill. : 1960) (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Tourniquet pain during spinal anesthesia: a comparison of plain solutions of tetracaine and bupivacaine. Concepcion, M.A., Lambert, D.H., Welch, K.A., Covino, B.G. Anesth. Analg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Human skeletal muscle energy metabolism during and after complete tourniquet ischemia. Haljamäe, H., Enger, E. Ann. Surg. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Limb ischemia-induced increase in permeability is mediated by leukocytes and leukotrienes. Klausner, J.M., Paterson, I.S., Valeri, C.R., Shepro, D., Hechtman, H.B. Ann. Surg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Thromboxane A2 moderates permeability after limb ischemia. Lelcuk, S., Alexander, F., Valeri, C.R., Shepro, D., Hechtman, H.B. Ann. Surg. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Self-monitoring of blood glucose: tourniquet method. Mezitis, N.H., Pi-Sunyer, X. Diabetes Care (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Evidence that the pars intermedia and pars nervosa of the pituitary do not secrete functionally significant quantities of ACTH. Greer, M.A., Allen, C.F., Panton, P., Allen, J.P. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  29. Cytokines and adhesion molecules in elective and accidental trauma-related ischemia/reperfusion. Seekamp, A., Jochum, M., Ziegler, M., van Griensven, M., Martin, M., Regel, G. The Journal of trauma. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Four cases of bleeding diathesis in children due to congenital plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 deficiency. Minowa, H., Takahashi, Y., Tanaka, T., Naganuma, K., Ida, S., Maki, I., Yoshioka, A. Haemostasis (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. A hind limb tourniquet induces interleukin-6 expression in a rat dorsal root ganglion. Abe, S., Mizusawa, I., Suto, M., Kato, N., Yabashi, A., Honda, T., Hiraiwa, K. Neuroreport (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of free radical scavenging on skeletal muscle blood flow during postischaemic reperfusion. Hardy, S.C., Homer-Vanniasinkam, S., Gough, M.J. The British journal of surgery. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Activated protein C attenuates acute ischaemia reperfusion injury in skeletal muscle. Dillon, J.P., Laing, A.J., Cahill, R.A., O'Brien, G.C., Street, J.T., Wang, J.H., Mc Guinness, A., Redmond, H.P. J. Orthop. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Bilateral intravenous regional anesthesia: a new method to test additives to local anesthetic solutions. Hartmannsgruber, M.W., Plessmann, S., Atanassoff, P.G. Anesthesiology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Surgical technique and preliminary results of endoscopic subfascial division of perforating veins. Gloviczki, P., Cambria, R.A., Rhee, R.Y., Canton, L.G., McKusick, M.A. J. Vasc. Surg. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Decreased incidence of tourniquet pain during spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine. A possible explanation. Stewart, A., Lambert, D.H., Concepcion, M.A., Datta, S., Flanagan, H., Migliozzi, R., Covino, B.G. Anesth. Analg. (1988) [Pubmed]
  37. Preoperative small-dose ketamine prevented tourniquet-induced arterial pressure increase in orthopedic patients under general anesthesia. Satsumae, T., Yamaguchi, H., Sakaguchi, M., Yasunaga, T., Yamashita, S., Yamamoto, S., Kida, H. Anesth. Analg. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Endothelin-1 is secreted after total knee arthroplasty regardless of the use of a tourniquet. Matziolis, G., Drahn, T., Schröder, J.H., Krocker, D., Tuischer, J., Perka, C. J. Orthop. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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