The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effects of citric acid on phytate-phosphorus utilization in young chicks and pigs.

Several bioassays were conducted with young chicks and pigs fed phosphorus (P)-deficient corn-soybean meal diets. With diets for chicks containing .62% Ca and .42% P (.10% available P), graded doses of a citric acid + sodium citrate (1:1, wt:wt) mixture (0, 1, 2, 4, or 6% of diet) resulted in linear (P < .01) increases in both weight gain and tibia ash. Relative to chicks fed no citric acid, tibia ash (%) and weight gain (g/d) were increased by 43 and 22%, respectively, in chicks fed 6% citric acid. Additional chick trials showed that 6% citric acid alone or sodium citrate alone was as efficacious as the citric acid + sodium citrate mixture and that 1,450 U/kg of phytase produced a positive response in bone ash and weight gain in chicks fed a diet containing 6% citrate. Varying the Ca:available P ratio with and without citrate supplementation indicated that citric acid primarily affected phytate-P utilization, not Ca, in chicks. Moreover, chicks did not respond to citrate supplementation when fed a P-deficient (.13% available P), phytate-free casein-dextrose diet. Young pigs averaging 10 to 11 kg also were used to evaluate citric acid efficacy in two experiments. A P-deficient corn-soybean meal basal diet was used to construct five treatment diets that contained 1) no additive, 2) 3% citric acid, 3) 6% citric acid, 4) 1,450 U/kg phytase, and 5) 6% citric acid + 1,450 U/kg phytase. Phytase supplementation increased (P < .01) weight gain, gain:feed, and metatarsal ash, whereas citric acid addition increased only gain:feed (P < .05) and metatarsal ash (P < .08). A subsequent 22-d pig experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of lower levels of citric acid (0, 1, 2, or 3%) or 1,450 U/kg phytase addition to a P-deficient corn-soybean meal diet. Phytase supplementation improved (P < .01) all criteria measured. Weight gain and gain:feed data suggested a response to citric acid addition, but this was not supported by fibula ash results (P > .10). The positive responses to phytase were much greater than those to citric acid in both pig experiments. Thus, dietary citric acid effectively improved phytate P utilization in chicks but had a much smaller effect in pigs.[1]


  1. The effects of citric acid on phytate-phosphorus utilization in young chicks and pigs. Boling, S.D., Webel, D.M., Mavromichalis, I., Parsons, C.M., Baker, D.H. J. Anim. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities