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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of the functional domain in the transcription factor RTEF-1 that mediates alpha 1-adrenergic signaling in hypertrophied cardiac myocytes.

Cardiac myocytes respond to alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor stimulation by a progressive hypertrophy accompanied by the activation of many fetal genes, including skeletal muscle alpha-actin. The skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene is activated by signaling through an MCAT element, the binding site of the transcription enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1) family of transcription factors. Previously, we showed that overexpression of the TEF-1-related factor (RTEF-1) increased the alpha(1)-adrenergic response of the skeletal muscle alpha-actin promoter, whereas TEF-1 overexpression did not. Here, we identified the functional domains and specific sequences in RTEF-1 that mediate the alpha(1)-adrenergic response. Chimeric TEF-1 and RTEF-1 expression constructs localized the region responsible for the alpha(1)-adrenergic response to the carboxyl-terminal domain of RTEF-1. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to inactivate eight serine residues of RTEF-1, not present in TEF-1, that are putative targets of alpha(1)-adrenergic-dependent kinases. Mutation of a single serine residue, Ser-322, reduced the alpha(1)-adrenergic activation of RTEF-1 by 70% without affecting protein stability, suggesting that phosphorylation at this serine residue accounts for most of the alpha(1)-adrenergic response. Thus, these results demonstrate that RTEF-1 is a direct target of alpha(1)-adrenergic signaling in hypertrophied cardiac myocytes.[1]


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