The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

Acta1  -  actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Acta, Actin, alpha skeletal muscle, Alpha-actin-1
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Acta1


Psychiatry related information on Acta1

  • Although Id mRNA becomes undetectable in adult ventricular myocytes 48 h following isolation in the absence of serum, it can be rapidly reinduced by an alpha-adrenergic agonist, accompanied by increased protein synthesis and the reexpression, in defined media, of the neonatal genes prepro-ANP and skeletal muscle alpha-actin [5].

High impact information on Acta1

  • Transient transfection into L8 myoblasts has been used to study the rat alpha-actin gene promoter [6].
  • Dynamics of demethylation and activation of the alpha-actin gene in myoblasts [6].
  • DMSO (2%) inhibits the fusion of myoblasts to form multinucleate myotubes, the normal increases in activity of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and acetylcholinesterase, and the synthesis of alpha-actin and acetylcholine receptor protein [7].
  • The strong conservation of these sequences suggests that they may have a role in the tissue-specific expression of the skeletal muscle alpha-actin gene [8].
  • Differentiation of muscle cells is characterized morphologically by the acquisition of contractile filaments and characteristic shape changes, and on the molecular level by induction of the expression of several genes, including those for the muscle-specific alpha-actin isoforms [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Acta1


Biological context of Acta1


Anatomical context of Acta1


Associations of Acta1 with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of Acta1


Regulatory relationships of Acta1

  • In summary, these results suggest a conserved role for CArG A, CArG B, and the TCE in TGF-beta-induced expression of SM alpha-actin in SMCs and non-SMCs that is modified by a complex interplay of positive- and negative-acting cis elements in a cell-specific manner [23].
  • Combined in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry reveals that most elastin mRNA-expressing cells in the media are alpha-actin-positive smooth muscle cells [24].
  • Culture-induced SM alpha-actin expression was suppressed in the presence of LPS (> 5 ng/ml) and/or IFN gamma (> 1 U/ml) dose-dependently [25].
  • The sequence spanning -894 to +1 of the SM alpha-actin promoter directed high levels of transcription that were attenuated in serum-restricted cells and upregulated upon treatment with serum or endothelin-1 [26].
  • ET-3-induced [3H]leucine incorporation, skeletal alpha-actin mRNA and cell surface area were inhibited by a synthetic ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788) [27].

Other interactions of Acta1

  • Acidic FGF (25 ng/ml) produced seven- to eightfold reciprocal changes in MHC expression but, unlike either TGF-beta 1 or basic FGF, inhibited both striated alpha-actin genes by 70-90% [15].
  • In contrast, serum stimulation was shown to increase nonmuscle beta-actin mRNA level, whereas SM alpha-actin mRNA level remained constant [28].
  • These data indicate that both JNKs and p38 participate in regulation of SM- alpha-actin expression [29].
  • We found that regenerating muscle shows that embryonic pattern of alpha-actin mRNAs in the early stage and concluded that the recovery of alpha-skeletal actin mRNA expression to the adult pattern is influenced by innervation, while alpha-cardiac actin mRNA expression is nerve independent [30].
  • Double-labeling with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and SM alpha-actin revealed SM alpha-actin-positive filaments in both replicating and resting cells [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Acta1


  1. The vascular smooth muscle alpha-actin gene is reactivated during cardiac hypertrophy provoked by load. Black, F.M., Packer, S.E., Parker, T.G., Michael, L.H., Roberts, R., Schwartz, R.J., Schneider, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Alteration in expression of smooth muscle alpha-actin associated with transformation of rat 3Y1 cells. Okamoto-Inoue, M., Taniguchi, S., Sadano, H., Kawano, T., Kimura, G., Gabbiani, G., Baba, T. J. Cell. Sci. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. The induction of smooth muscle alpha actin in a transformed rat cell line suppresses malignant properties in vitro and in vivo. Okamoto-Inoue, M., Kamada, S., Kimura, G., Taniguchi, S. Cancer Lett. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. DNA demethylation in vitro: involvement of RNA. Weiss, A., Keshet, I., Razin, A., Cedar, H. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcriptional regulation in cardiac muscle. Coordinate expression of Id with a neonatal phenotype during development and following a hypertrophic stimulus in adult rat ventricular myocytes in vitro. Springhorn, J.P., Ellingsen, O., Berger, H.J., Kelly, R.A., Smith, T.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Dynamics of demethylation and activation of the alpha-actin gene in myoblasts. Paroush, Z., Keshet, I., Yisraeli, J., Cedar, H. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Manipulation of myogenesis in vitro: reversible inhibition by DMSO. Blau, H.M., Epstein, C.J. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  8. Strong homology in promoter and 3'-untranslated regions of chick and rat alpha-actin genes. Ordahl, C.P., Cooper, T.A. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Interferon gamma inhibits both proliferation and expression of differentiation-specific alpha-smooth muscle actin in arterial smooth muscle cells. Hansson, G.K., Hellstrand, M., Rymo, L., Rubbia, L., Gabbiani, G. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Clenbuterol induces hypertrophy of the latissimus dorsi muscle and heart in the rat with molecular and phenotypic changes. Petrou, M., Wynne, D.G., Boheler, K.R., Yacoub, M.H. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular characterization of angiotensin II--induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes and hyperplasia of cardiac fibroblasts. Critical role of the AT1 receptor subtype. Sadoshima, J., Izumo, S. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibitory regulation of hypertrophy by endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide in cultured cardiac myocytes. Horio, T., Nishikimi, T., Yoshihara, F., Matsuo, H., Takishita, S., Kangawa, K. Hypertension (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Siderosomal ferritin. The missing link between ferritin and haemosiderin? Andrews, S.C., Treffry, A., Harrison, P.M. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by d-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate. Zhu, Z., Zhu, S., Liu, D., Yu, Z., Yang, Y., van der Giet, M., Tepel, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Peptide growth factors can provoke "fetal" contractile protein gene expression in rat cardiac myocytes. Parker, T.G., Packer, S.E., Schneider, M.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Cell cycle versus density dependence of smooth muscle alpha actin expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Blank, R.S., Thompson, M.M., Owens, G.K. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Angiotensin II-induced stimulation of smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by serum response factor and the homeodomain transcription factor MHox. Hautmann, M.B., Thompson, M.M., Swartz, E.A., Olson, E.N., Owens, G.K. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Role of epicardial mesothelial cells in the modification of phenotype and function of adult rat ventricular myocytes in primary coculture. Eid, H., Larson, D.M., Springhorn, J.P., Attawia, M.A., Nayak, R.C., Smith, T.W., Kelly, R.A. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Cultured rat mesangial cells contain smooth muscle alpha-actin not found in vivo. Elger, M., Drenckhahn, D., Nobiling, R., Mundel, P., Kriz, W. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Endothelin-1 and isoprenaline co-stimulation causes contractile failure which is partially reversed by MEK inhibition. Münzel, F., Mühlhäuser, U., Zimmermann, W.H., Didié, M., Schneiderbanger, K., Schubert, P., Engmann, S., Eschenhagen, T., Zolk, O. Cardiovasc. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cholera toxin treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells decreases smooth muscle alpha-actin content and abolishes the platelet-derived growth factor-BB-stimulated DNA synthesis. Sachinidis, A., Seul, C., Gouni-Berthold, I., Seewald, S., Ko, Y., Vetter, H., Fingerle, J., Hoppe, J. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Big endothelin-1 but not endothelin-1 is present in the smooth muscle stroma of the prostate gland of the rat. Ventura, S., Salamoussa, A. J. Anat. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Similarities and differences in smooth muscle alpha-actin induction by TGF-beta in smooth muscle versus non-smooth muscle cells. Hautmann, M.B., Adam, P.J., Owens, G.K. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Elastin expression in a model of acute arterial graft rejection. Isik, F.F., Clowes, A.W., Gordon, D. Transplantation (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Smooth muscle alpha-actin expression in rat hepatic stellate cell is regulated by nitric oxide and cGMP production. Kawada, N., Kuroki, T., Uoya, M., Inoue, M., Kobayashi, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Two proximal CArG elements regulate SM alpha-actin promoter, a genetic marker of activated phenotype of mesangial cells. Simonson, M.S., Walsh, K., Kumar, C.C., Bushel, P., Herman, W.H. Am. J. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Endothelin-3 induces hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes by the endogenous endothelin-1-mediated mechanism. Tamamori, M., Ito, H., Adachi, S., Akimoto, H., Marumo, F., Hiroe, M. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Differential effect of platelet-derived growth factor- versus serum-induced growth on smooth muscle alpha-actin and nonmuscle beta-actin mRNA expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Corjay, M.H., Thompson, M.M., Lynch, K.R., Owens, G.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Induction of smooth muscle alpha-actin in vascular smooth muscle cells by arginine vasopressin is mediated by c-Jun amino-terminal kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Garat, C., Van Putten, V., Refaat, Z.A., Dessev, C., Han, S.Y., Nemenoff, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of alpha-cardiac and alpha-skeletal actin mRNAs in relation to innervation in regenerating and non-regenerating rat skeletal muscles. Toyofuku, T., Hoffman, J.R., Zak, R., Carlson, B.M. Dev. Dyn. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Aloe emodin suppresses myofibroblastic differentiation of rat hepatic stellate cells in primary culture. Woo, S.W., Nan, J.X., Lee, S.H., Park, E.J., Zhao, Y.Z., Sohn, D.H. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha. Haller, H., Lindschau, C., Quass, P., Distler, A., Luft, F.C. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities