The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 gene in breast cancer.

BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports the hypotheses that the retinoic acid receptor beta2 ( RAR-beta2) gene is a tumor suppressor gene and that the chemopreventive effects of retinoids are due to induction of RAR-beta2. RAR-beta2 expression is reduced in many malignant tumors, and we examined whether methylation of RAR-beta2 could be responsible for this silencing. METHODS: RAR-beta2 expression was studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in eight breast cancer cell lines that were either treated with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and subsequently with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or left untreated. Sodium bisulfite genomic sequencing was used to determine the locations of 5-methylcytosines in the RAR-beta2 genes of three of these cell lines. In 16 breast cancer biopsy specimens and non-neoplastic breast tissue, methylation-specific PCR was used to determine the methylation status of RAR-beta2, and, in 13 of the specimens, RT-PCR analysis was used to detect RAR-beta2 expression. RESULTS: Cell lines SK-BR-3, T-47D, ZR-75-1, and MCF7 exhibited expression of RAR-beta2 only after demethylation and treatment with ATRA. The first exon expressed in the RAR-beta2 transcript was methylated in cell lines ZR-75-1 and SK-BR-3. Six breast cancer specimens showed methylation in the same region of the gene. No expression of RAR-beta2 was found in any grade III lesion. An inverse association between methylation and gene expression was found in all grade II lesions. The RAR-beta2 gene from non-neoplastic breast tissue was unmethylated and expressed. CONCLUSIONS: Methylation of the RAR-beta2 gene may be an initial step in breast carcinogenesis; treatment of cancer patients with demethylating agents followed by retinoic acid may offer a new therapeutic modality.[1]


  1. Methylation and silencing of the retinoic acid receptor-beta2 gene in breast cancer. Widschwendter, M., Berger, J., Hermann, M., Müller, H.M., Amberger, A., Zeschnigk, M., Widschwendter, A., Abendstein, B., Zeimet, A.G., Daxenbichler, G., Marth, C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities