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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Acute cadmium exposure inactivates thioltransferase ( Glutaredoxin), inhibits intracellular reduction of protein-glutathionyl-mixed disulfides, and initiates apoptosis.

Oxidative stress broadly impacts cells, initiating regulatory pathways as well as apoptosis and necrosis. A key molecular event is protein S-glutathionylation, and thioltransferase ( glutaredoxin) is a specific and efficient catalyst of protein-SSG reduction. In this study 30-min exposure of H9 and Jurkat cells to cadmium inhibited intracellular protein-SSG reduction, and this correlated with inhibition of the thioltransferase system, consistent with thioltransferase being the primary intracellular catalyst of deglutathionylation. The thioredoxin system contributed very little to total deglutathionylase activity. Thioltransferase and GSSG reductase in situ displayed similar dose-response curves (50% inhibition near 10 micrometer cadmium in extracellular buffer). Acute cadmium exposure also initiated apoptosis, with H9 cells being more sensitive than Jurkat. Moreover, transfection with antisense thioltransferase cDNA was incompatible with cell survival. Collectively, these data suggest that thioltransferase has a vital role in sulfhydryl homeostasis and cell survival. In separate experiments, cadmium inhibited the isolated component enzymes of the thioltransferase and thioredoxin systems, consistent with the vicinal dithiol nature of their active sites: thioltransferase (IC(50) approximately 1 micrometer), GSSG reductase (IC(50) approximately 1 micrometer), thioredoxin (IC(50) approximately 8 micrometer), thioredoxin reductase (IC(50) approximately 0.2 micrometer). Disruption of the vicinal dithiol on thioltransferase (via oxidation to C22-SS-C25; or C25S mutation) protected against cadmium, consistent with a dithiol chelation mechanism of inactivation.[1]


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