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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Comparison of thymidylate synthase ( TS) protein up-regulation after exposure to TS inhibitors in normal and tumor cell lines and tissues.

Thymidylate synthase ( TS) is an important target for cancer chemotherapy. However, several mechanisms of resistance to TS inhibitors have been described. One mechanism that may be relevant to short-term exposure to TS inhibitors occurs as a result of disruption of the autoregulatory loop, which allows TS to control its own translation. This disruption leads to up-regulation of TS protein and is generally thought to decrease efficacy. This study has investigated TS protein up-regulation using a range of TS inhibitors in both tumor and nonmalignant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Up-regulation of TS protein showed a time-, dose-, and cell-type-specific response to treatment with ZD9331. This response was observed in W1L2 cells treated for 24 h at equitoxic doses of raltitrexed (6-fold), ZD9331 (10-fold), fluorouracil (5-fold), LY231514 (7-fold), AG337 (7-fold), and BW1843U89 (3-fold). Up-regulation was observed over a range of doses. Elevation of TS protein only persisted up to 12 h after removal of drug. The extent of induction does not depend on basal TS levels. Nontransformed human fibroblasts showed significantly greater up-regulation of TS protein than tumor cells exposed to an equitoxic dose of ZD9331. In vivo experiments using the L5178Y thymidine kinase -/- mouse lymphoma implanted into DBA2 mice also showed greater up-regulation of TS protein in normal intestinal epithelial cells compared with tumor cells. These results confirm that TS up-regulation is a common feature of TS inhibition in tumor cells and that it may occur to a greater extent in normal tissues, although the clinical implications of these findings remain to be determined.[1]


  1. Comparison of thymidylate synthase (TS) protein up-regulation after exposure to TS inhibitors in normal and tumor cell lines and tissues. Welsh, S.J., Titley, J., Brunton, L., Valenti, M., Monaghan, P., Jackman, A.L., Aherne, G.W. Clin. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
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