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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

AC/A ratio, age, and refractive error in children.

PURPOSE: To examine how the response AC/A ratio (the amount of accommodative convergence per unit of accommodative response) varies as a function of refractive error and age, to determine whether it is a risk factor for the onset of myopia, and to examine the relation between ocular structural features and the AC/A ratio. METHODS: Accommodation was stimulated by a letter target presented in a Badal system at 0.00, 2.25, and 4.37 D to 828 children aged 6 through 14 years in 1996. Of these, 726 had no myopia in 1996 and were available for examination the following year. Accommodative response and cycloplegic refractive error were measured by autorefraction and convergence by monitoring the relative movement of Purkinje images I and IV. Lens radii of curvature were measured by video phakometry, corneal radius of curvature by topography, and ocular axial dimensions by A-scan ultrasonography. RESULTS: Adjusted for age, the response AC/A ratio was highest in myopes (6.39 delta/D), intermediate in emmetropes (3.94 delta/D), and lowest in hyperopes (3.40 delta/D; P < 0.0001; two-way analysis of variance [ANOVA]). The stimulus AC/A ratio did not vary with refractive error. Adjusted for refractive error, the response AC/A ratio did not change as a function of age. In non-myopic children, having a response AC/A ratio of 5.84 delta/D or more elevated the risk of development of myopia within 1 year by 22.5 times (95% CI = 7.12-71.1). In a subsample of children without myopia who had refractive errors less than +0.75 D, having a response AC/A ratio of 5.84 delta/D or more elevated the risk of development of myopia within 1 year by 3.21 times (95% CI = 1.14-9.07). The AC/A ratio was associated with all measured ocular features except lens spherical volume. Only the negative correlations with refractive error and the shape of the crystalline lens (Gullstrand lens power) were significant in a multiple regression model (adjusted R2 = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: An elevated response AC/A ratio was associated with myopia and was an important risk factor for its rapid onset. The association between higher AC/A ratios and flatter crystalline lens shapes, as well as other reported features of accommodation in myopia, may be explained by "pseudocycloplegia," which the authors define as tension on the crystalline lens that increases the level of effort needed to accommodate. Accommodative deficits in myopia may be the functional consequences of the underlying anatomy of the enlarged eye.[1]


  1. AC/A ratio, age, and refractive error in children. Mutti, D.O., Jones, L.A., Moeschberger, M.L., Zadnik, K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
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