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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effect of timolol, latanoprost, and dorzolamide on circadian IOP in glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

PURPOSE: To compare the around-the-clock intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction induced by timolol 0.5%, latanoprost 0.005%, and dorzolamide in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). METHODS: In this crossover trial, 20 patients with POAG (n = 10) or OHT (n = 10) were treated with timolol, latanoprost, and dorzolamide for 1 month. The treatment sequence was randomized. All patients underwent measurements for four 24-hour tonometric curves: at baseline and after each 1-month period of treatment. The patients were admitted to the hospital, and IOP was measured by two well-trained evaluators masked to treatment assignment. Measurements were taken at 3, 6, and 9 AM and noon and at 3, 6, and 9 PM and midnight by handheld electronic tonometer (TonoPen XL; Bio-Rad, Glendale, CA) with the patient supine and sitting, and a Goldmann applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, Bern, Switzerland) with the patient sitting at the slit lamp. Systemic blood pressure was recorded at the same times. The between-group differences were tested for significance by means of parametric analysis of variance. The circadian IOP curve of a small group of untreated healthy young subjects was also recorded using the same procedures. To compare the circadian IOP rhythms in the POAG-OHT and control groups, the acrophases for each subject were calculated. RESULTS: When Goldmann sitting values were considered, all the drugs significantly reduced IOP in comparison with baseline at all times, except for timolol at 3 AM. Latanoprost was more effective in lowering IOP than timolol at 3, 6, and 9 AM (P = 0.03), noon (P = 0.01), 9 PM, and midnight (P = 0.05) and was more effective than dorzolamide at 9 AM, noon (P = 0.03), and 3 and 6 PM (P = 0.04). Timolol was more effective than dorzolamide at 3 PM (P = 0.05), whereas dorzolamide performed better than timolol at midnight and 3 AM (P = 0.05). An ancillary finding of this study was that in the group of healthy subjects, the pattern of IOP curve was different that in patients with eye disease. CONCLUSIONS: Latanoprost seemed to lead to a fairly uniform circadian reduction in IOP, whereas timolol seemed to be less effective during the nighttime hours. Dorzolamide was less effective than latanoprost but led to a significant reduction in nocturnal IOP. The reason for the difference in the pattern of the IOP curve of healthy subjects is currently unknown and deserves further investigation.[1]


  1. Effect of timolol, latanoprost, and dorzolamide on circadian IOP in glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Orzalesi, N., Rossetti, L., Invernizzi, T., Bottoli, A., Autelitano, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
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