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Chemical Compound Review

Xalatan     propan-2-yl (E)-7-[(1R,2R,3R,5S)-3,5...

Synonyms: latanaprost, PhXA34, PhXA41, PhXA 41, AC1NQZZ7, ...
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Disease relevance of latanoprost


Psychiatry related information on latanoprost


High impact information on latanoprost


Chemical compound and disease context of latanoprost


Biological context of latanoprost


Anatomical context of latanoprost

  • PURPOSE: To assess the early effect of latanoprost on outflow facility and aqueous humor dynamics in the mouse [21].
  • Analysis of expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human ciliary body after latanoprost [11].
  • METHODS: Untreated and latanoprost-treated human Tenon fibroblasts were examined for the presence of MMPs and TIMPs on the mRNA and protein levels [22].
  • Effects of topical latanoprost on optic nerve head circulation in rabbits, monkeys, and humans [23].
  • PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to determine whether exposure of the sclera to prostaglandin (PG)F(2alpha) or to the PGF(2alpha) analogue latanoprost acid alters mRNA for matrix metalloproteinases [24].

Associations of latanoprost with other chemical compounds


Gene context of latanoprost

  • RESULTS: Real-time PCR results showed that 24 hours of exposure to 100 nM PGF(2alpha) significantly increased mRNA for MMP-1 and -9 (P < 0.06 Wilcoxon test) and that exposure to 100 nM latanoprost acid significantly increased mRNA for MMP-9 (P < 0.06 Wilcoxon test) [24].
  • The array results also showed that latanoprost induced dose-dependent increases in the expression of TIMP-1, -2, and -3 mRNA in the scleral cultures [24].
  • In NPE cells, latanoprost led to a concentration- and time-dependent increase of COX-2 mRNA levels [28].
  • The levels of MMP-3 and TIMP-2 increase after treatment with latanoprost [22].
  • Finally, transscleral absorption of FGF-2 was increased by up to 126% with scleral exposure to latanoprost [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of latanoprost

  • The drug reaches systemic concentrations that are below the level expected to stimulate FP-receptors outside the eye and it is rapidly eliminated with a half-life in plasma of 17 minutes, which explains why the clinical trials have not revealed any systemic side-effects with latanoprost [30].
  • To assess the reproducibility of the ultrasonic measurements, a control group of 20 patients (20 eyes) who did not receive latanoprost was also analyzed [3].
  • At 6, 12, or 24 hours after treatment, there was no difference in latanoprost- and PBS-treated eyes [17].
  • CONCLUSIONS: PGF(2alpha) and latanoprost acid induce coordinated alterations of MMP gene transcription in scleral organ cultures [24].
  • Latanoprost concentration in residual solution was analyzed in a masked fashion, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) [2].


  1. Characterization of a rabbit kidney prostaglandin F(2{alpha}) receptor exhibiting G(i)-restricted signaling that inhibits water absorption in the collecting duct. Hébert, R.L., Carmosino, M., Saito, O., Yang, G., Jackson, C.A., Qi, Z., Breyer, R.M., Natarajan, C., Hata, A.N., Zhang, Y., Guan, Y., Breyer, M.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Concentration of latanoprost ophthalmic solution after 4 to 6 weeks' use in an eye clinic setting. Varma, R., Winarko, J., Kiat-Winarko, T., Winarko, B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Short-term effects of latanoprost on anterior chamber depth in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Guti??rrez-Ortiz, C., Teus, M.A., Bolivar, G. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Conjunctival proinflammatory and proapoptotic effects of latanoprost and preserved and unpreserved timolol: an ex vivo and in vitro study. Pisella, P.J., Debbasch, C., Hamard, P., Creuzot-Garcher, C., Rat, P., Brignole, F., Baudouin, C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of hyaluronic acid on intraocular pressure in rats. Benozzi, J., Nahum, L.P., Campanelli, J.L., Rosenstein, R.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Melanin in the trabecular meshwork is associated with age, POAG but not Latanoprost treatment. A masked morphometric study. Cracknell, K.P., Grierson, I., Hogg, P., Majekodunmi, A.A., Watson, P., Marmion, V. Exp. Eye Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The efficacy and safety of once-daily versus once-weekly latanoprost treatment for increased intraocular pressure. Kurtz, S., Shemesh, G. Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Correlation between individual differences in intraocular pressure reduction and outflow facility due to latanoprost in normal-tension glaucoma patients. Kondo, N., Sawada, A., Yamamoto, T., Taniguchi, T. Jpn. J. Ophthalmol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of intratympanic injection of latanoprost in Meniere's disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. Rask-Andersen, H., Friberg, U., Johansson, M., Stjernschantz, J. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Microvascular effects of selective prostaglandin analogues in the eye with special reference to latanoprost and glaucoma treatment. Stjernschantz, J., Selén, G., Astin, M., Resul, B. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in human ciliary body after latanoprost. Oh, D.J., Martin, J.L., Williams, A.J., Peck, R.E., Pokorny, C., Russell, P., Birk, D.E., Rhee, D.J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of bimatoprost on patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who are nonresponders to latanoprost. Gandolfi, S.A., Cimino, L. Ophthalmology (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. A double-masked, randomized clinical trial comparing latanoprost with unoprostone in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Susanna, R., Giampani, J., Borges, A.S., Vessani, R.M., Jordao, M.L. Ophthalmology (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. A 6-week, double-masked, parallel-group study of the efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004% compared with latanoprost 0:005%/timolol 0.5% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Franks, W.A., Renard, J.P., Cunliffe, I.A., Rojanapongpun, P. Clinical therapeutics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Latanoprost accelerates disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier and the incidence of angiographic cystoid macular edema in early postoperative pseudophakias. Miyake, K., Ota, I., Maekubo, K., Ichihashi, S., Miyake, S. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Combined therapy of pilocarpine or latanoprost with timolol versus latanoprost monotherapy. Diestelhorst, M., Nordmann, J.P., Toris, C.B. Survey of ophthalmology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Reduction of intraocular pressure in mouse eyes treated with latanoprost. Aihara, M., Lindsey, J.D., Weinreb, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Effect of latanoprost and timolol on the histopathology of the rabbit conjunctiva. Mietz, H., Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U., Strassfeld, C., Krieglstein, G.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of topical hypotensive drugs on circadian IOP, blood pressure, and calculated diastolic ocular perfusion pressure in patients with glaucoma. Quaranta, L., Gandolfo, F., Turano, R., Rovida, F., Pizzolante, T., Musig, A., Gandolfo, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Acute effects of PGF2alpha on MMP-2 secretion from human ciliary muscle cells: a PKC- and ERK-dependent process. Husain, S., Jafri, F., Crosson, C.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Effect of latanoprost on outflow facility in the mouse. Crowston, J.G., Aihara, M., Lindsey, J.D., Weinreb, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Latanoprost stimulates secretion of matrix metalloproteinases in tenon fibroblasts both in vitro and in vivo. Mietz, H., Esser, J.M., Welsandt, G., Kociok, N., Hueber, A., Joussen, A., Esser, P., Krieglstein, G.K. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of topical latanoprost on optic nerve head circulation in rabbits, monkeys, and humans. Ishii, K., Tomidokoro, A., Nagahara, M., Tamaki, Y., Kanno, M., Fukaya, Y., Araie, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Prostaglandin FP agonists alter metalloproteinase gene expression in sclera. Weinreb, R.N., Lindsey, J.D., Marchenko, G., Marchenko, N., Angert, M., Strongin, A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Morphological changes in the anterior eye segment after long-term treatment with different receptor selective prostaglandin agonists and a prostamide. Richter, M., Krauss, A.H., Woodward, D.F., Lütjen-Drecoll, E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Prostaglandin analogues and mouse intraocular pressure: effects of tafluprost, latanoprost, travoprost, and unoprostone, considering 24-hour variation. Ota, T., Murata, H., Sugimoto, E., Aihara, M., Araie, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Effect of latanoprost on intraocular pressure in mice lacking the prostaglandin FP receptor. Crowston, J.G., Lindsey, J.D., Aihara, M., Weinreb, R.N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Latanoprost induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in human nonpigmented ciliary epithelial cells through a cyclooxygenase-2-dependent mechanism. Hinz, B., Rösch, S., Ramer, R., Tamm, E.R., Brune, K. FASEB J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Enhancement of scleral macromolecular permeability with prostaglandins. Weinreb, R.N. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Prostaglandin derivates as ocular hypotensive agents. Alm, A. Progress in retinal and eye research. (1998) [Pubmed]
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