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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Identification of a novel cytokine response element in the human IFN regulatory factor-1 gene promoter.

The present study investigates the regulatory mechanisms involved in the cooperation between IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha to promote transcription from IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1). A transient transfection analysis revealed that the region between -218 and -144, where +1 is the transcription start site, as well as previously reported downstream elements, ppkappaB and IFN-gamma activation site/kappaB, were required for the optimal response to the two cytokines. A subsequent DNase I footprint analysis showed that the region between -171 and -144 was inducibly protected with stimulation by TNF-alpha, and this protection was significantly enhanced with the combination of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. In an EMSA with the protected region as a probe, a TNF-alpha-inducible complex ( C1) and an IFN-gamma-inducible complex (C2), but no synergy-specific DNA-protein complexes, were recognized. The C1 complex consisted of a pre-existing factor ( p65/p50), whereas the C2 complex consisted of a newly synthesized IRF-1-related factor. A methylation interference assay revealed the critical G residues (from -167 to -151) for the DNA-protein complex formation specific to the cytokine response, and within this region the novel kappaB sequence, the promoter distal kappaB (pdkappaB) element (5'-GGGGAAG TAC-3'), was identified. Because the base substitutions over the pdkappaB region (from -171 to -144) affected not only the TNF-alpha-response but also that of IFN-gamma, this region might contribute to the cooperative action of the NF-kappaB subunits with the IRF-1-related factor. Finally, we demonstrated that none of the cis-acting elements, ppkappaB, pdkappaB, or IFN-gamma activation site/kappaB, is dispensable for the optimal synergism in response to IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha.[1]


  1. Identification of a novel cytokine response element in the human IFN regulatory factor-1 gene promoter. Imanishi, D., Yamamoto, K., Tsushima, H., Miyazaki, Y., Kuriyama, K., Tomonaga, M., Matsuyama, T. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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