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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Response Elements

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Disease relevance of Response Elements


Psychiatry related information on Response Elements


High impact information on Response Elements


Chemical compound and disease context of Response Elements


Biological context of Response Elements


Anatomical context of Response Elements


Associations of Response Elements with chemical compounds

  • Here we show that the ability of glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors to discriminate between their closely related response elements resides in the two amino acids located between the two cysteines in the C-terminal half of the first finger [24].
  • Remarkably, RXR beta also heterodimerizes with the thyroid hormone and vitamin D receptors, increasing both DNA binding and transcriptional function on their respective response elements [30].
  • A cyclic AMP response element mediates repression of tyrosine aminotransferase gene transcription by the tissue-specific extinguisher locus Tse-1 [31].
  • Several lines of evidence are presented for the existence of multiple, cell type-specific nuclear proteins that function to differentially increase the binding affinity of the alpha retinoic acid receptor for a variety of response elements [32].
  • We demonstrated previously that two molecules of steroid hormone receptor bound efficiently to a single hormone response element (GRE/PRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene (Tsai et al., 1988) [33].

Gene context of Response Elements

  • A direct physical binding of cyclin D1 to the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor results in an increased binding of the receptor to estrogen response element sequences, and upregulates estrogen receptor-mediated transcription [34].
  • c-Jun, Jun-B, and Jun-D proteins bind to the TPA response element (TRE) either as homodimers or as Jun-Fos heterodimers [35].
  • Sites in hb mRNA that mediate this repression, named nanos response elements (NREs), have been identified [36].
  • Translational repression is mediated by an ovarian protein, bruno, that binds specifically to bruno response elements (BREs), present in multiple copies in the osk mRNA 3'UTR [37].
  • These nos response elements (NREs) are both necessary and sufficient to confer nos-dependent regulation, the degree of regulation determined by the number and quality of the elements and the level of nos in vivo [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Response Elements


  1. RNA recognition by an isolated alpha helix. Tan, R., Chen, L., Buettner, J.A., Hudson, D., Frankel, A.D. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Cooperativity in transactivation between retinoic acid receptor and TFIID requires an activity analogous to E1A. Berkenstam, A., Ruiz, M.M., Barettino, D., Horikoshi, M., Stunnenberg, H.G. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Structure-function analyses of the HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 Rev RNA response elements: insights into the mechanism of Rex and Rev action. Ahmed, Y.F., Hanly, S.M., Malim, M.H., Cullen, B.R., Greene, W.C. Genes Dev. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Induction of transcription factor AP-1 by adenovirus E1A protein and cAMP. Müller, U., Roberts, M.P., Engel, D.A., Doerfler, W., Shenk, T. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulated expression of vimentin cDNA in cells in the presence and absence of a preexisting vimentin filament network. Sarria, A.J., Nordeen, S.K., Evans, R.M. J. Cell Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Electroconvulsive shock increases the phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein at Ser-133 in rat hippocampus but not in cerebellum. Jeon, S.H., Seong, Y.S., Juhnn, Y.S., Kang, U.G., Ha, K.S., Kim, Y.S., Park, J.B. Neuropharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein is required for normal maternal nurturing behavior. Jin, S.H., Blendy, J.A., Thomas, S.A. Neuroscience (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE)-binding protein complex DRAF1 is activated in Sindbis virus (HR)-infected cells. Behr, M., Schieferdecker, K., Bühr, P., Büter, M., Petsophonsakul, W., Sirirungsi, W., Redmann-Müller, I., Müller, U., Prempracha, N., Jungwirth, C. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of opioids on Ca2+/cAMP responsive element binding protein. Bilecki, W., Przewłocki, R. Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. CRE-mediated transcription is increased in Huntington's disease transgenic mice. Obrietan, K., Hoyt, K.R. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Nuclear hormone receptors and gene expression. Aranda, A., Pascual, A. Physiol. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. RNAi components are required for nuclear clustering of Polycomb group response elements. Grimaud, C., Bantignies, F., Pal-Bhadra, M., Ghana, P., Bhadra, U., Cavalli, G. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Aromatic hydrocarbon receptor-driven Bax gene expression is required for premature ovarian failure caused by biohazardous environmental chemicals. Matikainen, T., Perez, G.I., Jurisicova, A., Pru, J.K., Schlezinger, J.J., Ryu, H.Y., Laine, J., Sakai, T., Korsmeyer, S.J., Casper, R.F., Sherr, D.H., Tilly, J.L. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. OAZ uses distinct DNA- and protein-binding zinc fingers in separate BMP-Smad and Olf signaling pathways. Hata, A., Seoane, J., Lagna, G., Montalvo, E., Hemmati-Brivanlou, A., Massagué, J. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Drosophila p53 binds a damage response element at the reaper locus. Brodsky, M.H., Nordstrom, W., Tsang, G., Kwan, E., Rubin, G.M., Abrams, J.M. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Estradiol repression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha transcription requires estrogen receptor activation function-2 and is enhanced by coactivators. An, J., Ribeiro, R.C., Webb, P., Gustafsson, J.A., Kushner, P.J., Baxter, J.D., Leitman, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. The NF-kappa B and Sp1 motifs of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat function as novel thyroid hormone response elements. Desai-Yajnik, V., Samuels, H.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is distinct from CREB and expressed preferentially in brain. Kara, C.J., Liou, H.C., Ivashkiv, L.B., Glimcher, L.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor I gene expression by intracellular calcium via hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Liu, Q., Möller, U., Flügel, D., Kietzmann, T. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Susceptibility to prostate cancer: interaction between genotypes at the androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen loci. Xue, W., Irvine, R.A., Yu, M.C., Ross, R.K., Coetzee, G.A., Ingles, S.A. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Promoter context- and response element-dependent specificity of the transcriptional activation and modulating functions of retinoic acid receptors. Nagpal, S., Saunders, M., Kastner, P., Durand, B., Nakshatri, H., Chambon, P. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Direct repeats as selective response elements for the thyroid hormone, retinoic acid, and vitamin D3 receptors. Umesono, K., Murakami, K.K., Thompson, C.C., Evans, R.M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Cooperativity of glucocorticoid response elements located far upstream of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene. Jantzen, H.M., Strähle, U., Gloss, B., Stewart, F., Schmid, W., Boshart, M., Miksicek, R., Schütz, G. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Two amino acids within the knuckle of the first zinc finger specify DNA response element activation by the glucocorticoid receptor. Danielsen, M., Hinck, L., Ringold, G.M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Hematopoietic expression of HOXB4 is regulated in normal and leukemic stem cells through transcriptional activation of the HOXB4 promoter by upstream stimulating factor (USF)-1 and USF-2. Giannola, D.M., Shlomchik, W.D., Jegathesan, M., Liebowitz, D., Abrams, C.S., Kadesch, T., Dancis, A., Emerson, S.G. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Altered expression of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in aromatase-deficient mice. Nemoto, Y., Toda, K., Ono, M., Fujikawa-Adachi, K., Saibara, T., Onishi, S., Enzan, H., Okada, T., Shizuta, Y. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Nuclear factor-kappa B interacts functionally with the platelet-derived growth factor B-chain shear-stress response element in vascular endothelial cells exposed to fluid shear stress. Khachigian, L.M., Resnick, N., Gimbrone, M.A., Collins, T. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Mutually dependent response elements in the cis-regulatory region of the neurotensin/neuromedin N gene integrate environmental stimuli in PC12 cells. Kislauskis, E., Dobner, P.R. Neuron (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. A vascular bed-specific pathway. Guillot, P.V., Guan, J., Liu, L., Kuivenhoven, J.A., Rosenberg, R.D., Sessa, W.C., Aird, W.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. RXR beta: a coregulator that enhances binding of retinoic acid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D receptors to their cognate response elements. Yu, V.C., Delsert, C., Andersen, B., Holloway, J.M., Devary, O.V., Näär, A.M., Kim, S.Y., Boutin, J.M., Glass, C.K., Rosenfeld, M.G. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. A cyclic AMP response element mediates repression of tyrosine aminotransferase gene transcription by the tissue-specific extinguisher locus Tse-1. Boshart, M., Weih, F., Schmidt, A., Fournier, R.E., Schütz, G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Multiple cell type-specific proteins differentially regulate target sequence recognition by the alpha retinoic acid receptor. Glass, C.K., Devary, O.V., Rosenfeld, M.G. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Cooperative binding of steroid hormone receptors contributes to transcriptional synergism at target enhancer elements. Tsai, S.Y., Tsai, M.J., O'Malley, B.W. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  34. CDK-independent activation of estrogen receptor by cyclin D1. Zwijsen, R.M., Wientjens, E., Klompmaker, R., van der Sman, J., Bernards, R., Michalides, R.J. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  35. Jun-B differs in its biological properties from, and is a negative regulator of, c-Jun. Chiu, R., Angel, P., Karin, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Binding of pumilio to maternal hunchback mRNA is required for posterior patterning in Drosophila embryos. Murata, Y., Wharton, R.P. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Translational regulation of oskar mRNA by bruno, an ovarian RNA-binding protein, is essential. Kim-Ha, J., Kerr, K., Macdonald, P.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  38. RNA regulatory elements mediate control of Drosophila body pattern by the posterior morphogen nanos. Wharton, R.P., Struhl, G. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Novel arylpyrazole compounds selectively modulate glucocorticoid receptor regulatory activity. Wang, J.C., Shah, N., Pantoja, C., Meijsing, S.H., Ho, J.D., Scanlan, T.S., Yamamoto, K.R. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  40. Protective effects of a glucocorticoid on downregulation of pulmonary beta 2-adrenergic receptors in vivo. Mak, J.C., Nishikawa, M., Shirasaki, H., Miyayasu, K., Barnes, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  41. Constitutive and impaired signaling of leptin receptors containing the Gln --> Pro extracellular domain fatty mutation. White, D.W., Wang, D.W., Chua, S.C., Morgenstern, J.P., Leibel, R.L., Baumann, H., Tartaglia, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  42. Molecular cloning of human CREB-2: an ATF/CREB transcription factor that can negatively regulate transcription from the cAMP response element. Karpinski, B.A., Morle, G.D., Huggenvik, J., Uhler, M.D., Leiden, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  43. Trithorax- and Polycomb-group response elements within an Ultrabithorax transcription maintenance unit consist of closely situated but separable sequences. Tillib, S., Petruk, S., Sedkov, Y., Kuzin, A., Fujioka, M., Goto, T., Mazo, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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