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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Retinoic acid stimulates erythropoietin gene transcription in embryonal carcinoma cells through the direct repeat of a steroid/thyroid hormone receptor response element half-site in the hypoxia-response enhancer.

We have previously reported that expression of the erythropoietin ( Epo) gene in mouse embryonal cells was not induced by hypoxia, although hypoxia induced other hypoxia-inducible genes. This study identifies retinoic acid (RA) as an inducer for Epo production in the embryonal carcinoma cell lines P19 and F9. RA induced Epo production through the transcriptional activation of the Epo gene in an oxygen-independent manner. With the use of reporter assays in P19 cells, it is shown that a direct repeat of the nuclear hormone receptor-binding motif separated by a 2-bp spacer (DR-2) in the hypoxia-response enhancer was responsible for the transcriptional activation by RA. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that nuclear extracts from P19 cells contained RA receptor complexes that bound to DR-2. In human hepatoma Hep3B cells, an orphan receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, strongly augmented hypoxic induction of the Epo gene in cooperation with hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) by binding to DR-2, whereas in P19 cells, the interaction of RA receptors with DR-2 was sufficient for RA-induced transcriptional activation of the Epo gene without the requirement of the HIF-1 site. These results suggest that DR-2 regulates expression of the Epo gene by acting as the binding site for different transcription factors in different types of cells.[1]


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