The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Diminished levels of the putative tumor suppressor proteins EXT1 and EXT2 in exostosis chondrocytes.

The EXT family of putative tumor suppressor genes affect endochondral bone growth, and mutations in EXT1 and EXT2 genes cause the autosomal dominant disorder Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME). Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of these genes plays a role in the development of exostoses and chondrosarcomas. In this study, we characterized EXT genes in 11 exostosis chondrocyte strains using LOH and mutational analyses. We also determined subcellular localization and quantitation of EXT1 and EXT2 proteins by immunocytochemistry using antibodies raised against unique peptide epitopes. In an isolated non-HME exostosis, we detected three genetic hits: deletion of one EXT1 gene, a net 21-bp deletion within the other EXT1 gene and a deletion in intron 1 causing loss of gene product. Diminished levels of EXT1 and EXT2 protein were found in 9 (82%) and 5 (45%) exostosis chondrocyte strains, respectively, and 4 (36%) were deficient in levels of both proteins. Although we found mutations in exostosis chondrocytes, mutational analysis alone did not predict all the observed decreases in EXT gene products in exostosis chondrocytes, suggesting additional genetic mutations. Moreover, exostosis chondrocytes exhibit an unusual cellular phenotype characterized by abnormal actin bundles in the cytoplasm. These results suggest that multiple mutational steps are involved in exostosis development and that EXT genes play a role in cell signaling related to chondrocyte cytoskeleton regulation.[1]


  1. Diminished levels of the putative tumor suppressor proteins EXT1 and EXT2 in exostosis chondrocytes. Bernard, M.A., Hall, C.E., Hogue, D.A., Cole, W.G., Scott, A., Snuggs, M.B., Clines, G.A., Lüdecke, H.J., Lovett, M., Van Winkle, W.B., Hecht, J.T. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities