The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Adenosine A2A receptor activation reduces proinflammatory events and decreases cell death following intracerebral hemorrhage.

The ubiquitous neuromodulator adenosine inhibits the production of several proinflammatory cytokines through activation of specific cell-surface adenosine receptors. We demonstrated recently that antisense oligonucleotides to tumor necrosis factor-alpha ( TNF-alpha) are neuroprotective in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of adenosine receptors would provide protection against intracerebral hemorrhage-induced TNF-alpha production and inflammatory events. In vitro experiments showed that adenosine A1, A2A, and A3 receptor subtypes were present on U937 cells, and activation of these subtypes inhibited TNF-alpha production with a rank order of A2A > > A1 > A3. Prolonged treatment of U937 cells with the A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS 21680) desensitized adenosine A2A, A1, and A3 receptors. CGS 21680 administration directly into the striatum immediately prior to the induction of intracerebral hemorrhage inhibited TNF-alpha mRNA and, 24 hours following induction, reduced parenchymal neutrophil infiltration (p < 0.001) and TUNEL-positive cells (p < 0.002) within and bordering the hematoma. These results suggest that pharmacological strategies targeting A2A receptors may provide effective inhibition of acute neurotoxic proinflammatory events that occur following intracerebral hemorrhage.[1]


  1. Adenosine A2A receptor activation reduces proinflammatory events and decreases cell death following intracerebral hemorrhage. Mayne, M., Fotheringham, J., Yan, H.J., Power, C., Del Bigio, M.R., Peeling, J., Geiger, J.D. Ann. Neurol. (2001) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities