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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Atypical lambda/iota PKC conveys 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4- mediated cross-talk between phospholipase A2s regulating NF-kappa B activation in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta.

The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) plays crucial roles in a wide variety of biological functions such as inflammation, stress, and immune responses. We have shown previously that secretory nonpancreatic (snp) and cytosolic (c) phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) regulate NF-kappaB activation in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1beta activation and that a functional coupling mediated by the 5-lipoxygenase ( 5-LO) metabolite leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) exists between snpPLA(2) and cPLA(2) in human keratinocytes. In this study, we have further investigated the mechanisms of PLA(2)-modulated NF-kappaB activation with respect to specific kinases involved in TNF-alpha/IL-1beta- stimulated cPLA(2) phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors RO 31-8220, Gö 6976, and a pseudosubstrate peptide inhibitor of atypical PKCs attenuated arachidonic acid release, cPLA(2) phosphorylation, and NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF-alpha or IL-1beta, thus indicating atypical PKCs in cPLA(2) regulation and transcription factor activation. Transfection of a kinase-inactive mutant of lambda/iotaPKC in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts completely abolished TNF-alpha/IL-1beta-stimulated cellular arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation assayed in vitro, confirming the role of lambda/iotaPKC in cPLA(2) regulation. Furthermore, lambda/iotaPKC and cPLA(2) phosphorylation was attenuated by phosphatidyinositol 3-kinase ( PI3-kinase) inhibitors, which also reduced NF-kappaB activation in response to TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, indicating a role for PI3-kinase in these processes in human keratinocytes. TNF-alpha- and IL-1beta- induced phosphorylation of lambda/iotaPKC was attenuated by inhibitors toward snpPLA(2) and 5-LO and by an LTB(4) receptor antagonist, suggesting lambda/iotaPKC as a downstream effector of snpPLA(2) and 5-LO/LTB(4) the LTB(4) receptor. Hence, lambda/iotaPKC regulates snpPLA(2)/LTB(4)-mediated cPLA(2) activation, cellular arachidonic acid release, and NF-kappaB activation induced by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta. In addition, our results demonstrate that PI3-kinase and lambda/iotaPKC are involved in cytokine- induced cPLA(2) and NF-kappaB activation, thus identifying lambda/iotaPKC as a novel regulator of cPLA(2).[1]


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