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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Activation of ARF6 by ARNO stimulates epithelial cell migration through downstream activation of both Rac1 and phospholipase D.

Migration of epithelial cells is essential for tissue morphogenesis, wound healing, and metastasis of epithelial tumors. Here we show that ARNO, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) GTPases, induces Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells to develop broad lamellipodia, to separate from neighboring cells, and to exhibit a dramatic increase in migratory behavior. This transition requires ARNO catalytic activity, which we show leads to enhanced activation of endogenous ARF6, but not ARF1, using a novel pulldown assay. We further demonstrate that expression of ARNO leads to increased activation of endogenous Rac1, and that Rac activation is required for ARNO-induced cell motility. Finally, ARNO- induced activation of ARF6 also results in increased activation of phospholipase D (PLD), and inhibition of PLD activity also inhibits motility. However, inhibition of PLD does not prevent activation of Rac. Together, these data suggest that ARF6 activation stimulates two distinct signaling pathways, one leading to Rac activation, the other to changes in membrane phospholipid composition, and that both pathways are required for cell motility.[1]


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