The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Identification of a C-terminal region that regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 cytoplasmic localization and ERK activation.

The C-terminal region of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 and 2 (MKK1 and MKK2) may function in regulating interactions with upstream kinases or the magnitude and duration of ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. The MKK C-terminal region contains a proline-rich region that reportedly functions in regulating interactions with the Raf-1 kinase and ERK activity. In addition, phosphorylation sites in the C terminus of MKK1 have been suggested to either sustain or attenuate MKK1 activity. To further understand how phosphorylation at the C terminus of MKK1 and protein interactions regulate MKK1 function, we have generated several MKK1 C-terminal deletion mutants and examined their function in regulating MKK1 localization, ERK protein activation, and cell growth. A deletion of C-terminal amino acids encompassing two putative alpha-helices between residues 330 and 379 caused a re-distribution of mutant MKK1 proteins to membrane compartments. Immunofluorescence analysis of MKK1 mutants revealed a loss of homogenous cytosolic distribution that is typically observed with MKK1 wild type, suggesting this region regulates MKK1 cellular localization. In contrast, MKK1 C-terminal deletion mutants localized to various sized punctate regions that overlapped with lysosome compartments. ERK activation in response to constitutively active Raf-1 or growth factor stimulus was attenuated in cells expressing MKK1 C-terminal deletion mutants. This could be partly explained by the inability of Raf-1 to phosphorylate MKK1 C-terminal deletion mutants even though the phosphorylation sites were intact in these mutants. Finally, we show that cells expressing MKK1 C-terminal deletion mutants displayed characteristic patterns of apoptotic cell death and reduced cell proliferation. These findings identify a novel C-terminal region between amino acid residues 330 and 379 on MKK1 that is necessary for regulating the cytoplasmic distribution and subsequent ERK protein activation necessary for cell survival and viability.[1]

References

 
WikiGenes - Universities