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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

In vitro effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in whole blood of horses, dogs, and cats.

OBJECTIVE: To determine potency and selectivity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and cyclooxygenase- (COX-) specific inhibitors in whole blood from horses, dogs, and cats. SAMPLE POPULATION: Blood samples from 30 healthy horses, 48 healthy dogs, and 9 healthy cats. PROCEDURE: Activities of COX-1 and COX-2 were determined by measuring coagulation-induced thromboxane and lipopolysaccharide-induced prostaglandin E2 concentrations, respectively, in whole blood with and without the addition of various concentrations of phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, ketoprofen, diclofenac, indomethacin, meloxicam, carprofen, 5-bromo-2[4-fluorophenyl]-3-14-methylsulfonylphenyl]-thiophene (DuP 697), 5,5-dimethyl-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-4-(4-methylsulphonyl) phenyl-2(5H)-furan one (DFU), 3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-4-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-2-(5H)-furanone (MF-tricyclic), and celecoxib. Potency of each test compound was determined by calculating the concentration that resulted in inhibition of 50% of COX activity (IC50). Selectivity was determined by calculating the ratio of IC50 for COX-1 to IC50 for COX-2 ( COX-1/COX-2 ratio). RESULTS: The novel compound DFU was the most selective COX-2 inhibitor in equine, canine, and feline blood; COX-1/COX-2 ratios were 775, 74, and 69, respectively. Carprofen was the weakest inhibitor of COX-2, compared with the other COX-2 selective inhibitors, and did not inhibit COX-2 activity in equine blood. In contrast, NSAID such as phenylbutazone and flunixin meglumine were more potent inhibitors of COX-1 than COX-2 in canine and equine blood. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The novel COX-2 inhibitor DFU was more potent and selective in canine, equine, and feline blood, compared with phenylbutazone, flunixin meglumine, and carprofen. Compounds that specifically inhibit COX-2 may result in a lower incidence of adverse effects, compared with NSAID, when administered at therapeutic dosages to horses, dogs, and cats.[1]


  1. In vitro effects of cyclooxygenase inhibitors in whole blood of horses, dogs, and cats. Brideau, C., Van Staden, C., Chan, C.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
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