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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The effect of bergamottin on diazepam plasma levels and P450 enzymes in beagle dogs.

Bergamottin, a furanocoumarin isolated from grapefruit juice, was investigated for the ability to increase diazepam bioavailability and for its effect on cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes in the beagle dog liver and intestine. To study the effect of bergamottin on diazepam pharmacokinetics, male beagle dogs were dosed with bergamottin (1 mg/kg) p.o. 0 or 2 h before p.o. diazepam (10 mg). In a second experiment, bergamottin (0.1 mg/kg) was dosed i.v. or p.o. 1 h before p.o. diazepam (10 mg). Plasma samples were collected over 24 h postdose, analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass tandem spectrometry, and diazepam pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. To study the effect of bergamottin on P450 enzymes, beagle dog liver and jejunum was harvested after a 10-day dosing regimen of bergamottin (1 mg/kg) p.o. per day; microsomes were prepared and analyzed for CYP3A12, CYP2B11, CYP1A1/2, and tolbutamide hydroxylase activity. Bergamottin predosing increased the plasma levels of diazepam as observed by C(max) (278.75 ng/ml versus 5.49 ng/ml) and the area under the curve [AUC((0-TLDC))] (247.69 versus 2.79 ng x hr/ml) in bergamottin versus placebo groups, respectively, indicating P450 enzyme inhibition. Diazepam plasma concentrations were increased to a similar level in the presence of i.v. and p.o. administered bergamottin. In hepatic microsomes, bergamottin treatment for 10 days reduced the activity of CYP3A12 by 50% and CYP1A1/2 by 75%. Tolbutamide hydroxylase activity did not change, and CYP2B11 activity was moderately induced. In jejunal microsomes, CYP3A12 activity doubled with bergamottin treatment. CYP2B11, CYP1A1/2 activity and tolbutamide hydroxylation was not detected. In conclusion, bergamottin is both an inhibitor and an inducer of P450 enzymes.[1]


  1. The effect of bergamottin on diazepam plasma levels and P450 enzymes in beagle dogs. Sahi, J., Reyner, E.L., Bauman, J.N., Gueneva-Boucheva, K., Burleigh, J.E., Thomas, V.H. Drug Metab. Dispos. (2002) [Pubmed]
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