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Disease relevance of Jejunum

  • Pathogenesis of Shigella diarrhea. XVI. Selective targetting of Shiga toxin to villus cells of rabbit jejunum explains the effect of the toxin on intestinal electrolyte transport [1].
  • A defect in glucose-stimulated Na+ absorption in the acute stage of a viral enteritis has been identified which probably contributes to the impaired lumen-to-extracellular fluid flux of Na+ found previously in the jejunum of intact TGE-infected pigs [2].
  • Permeability as measured by determining permeability coefficients was not increased by Salmonella infection and in fact was significantly reduced for erythritol in the jejunum of infected animals [3].
  • An in vitro technique was used to examine the rate of uptake of varying concentrations of glucose, galactose, and a homologous series of saturated fatty acids into the jejunum of control rats and Noble rats bearing prostatic tumor variants of primary human prostatic adenocarcinoma 52 [4].
  • A comparison of the inhibition of thymidine incorporation in tumor cells (B16 melanoma and P388 leukemia) and normal jejunum revealed no significant differences in the extent of inhibition or the rapidity of recovery in these tissues [5].

Psychiatry related information on Jejunum


High impact information on Jejunum

  • Immunoreactive serotonin was detected in the lumen of the proximal jejunum of food-deprived cats [8].
  • Folate conjugase: two separate activities in human jejunum [9].
  • Somatostatin was also found in the duodenum and jejunum, but in a smaller concentration [10].
  • Homozygous null mice for Fkh6 showed postnatal growth retardation secondary to severe structural abnormalities of the stomach, duodenum, and jejunum [11].
  • This suggested that fluid absorption processes are reduced in CF jejunum, and further studies revealed that this was due to a marked depression of passive chloride absorption [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Jejunum

  • In addition, the effect of indomethacin on radioresponse of hematopoietic tissue, jejunum, hair follicles, and tissues involved in the development of radiation-induced leg contractures was determined [13].
  • Hypertrophy of villi and increased cell proliferation seen in jejunum remaining exposed to luminal contents resulted in an increase in the alkaline phosphatase but not the sucrase content [14].
  • In another patient with diffuse lymphoma of small bowel with bleeding from only a small segment of jejunum, injection of methylene blue intraoperatively through a previously placed angiographic catheter stained the bleeding segment of jejunum blue [15].
  • Both the jejunum and the ileum supported a basal net secretory flux of oxalate (-19.71 +/- 2.39 (N = 13) and -30.06 +/- 2.80 (N = 16) pmol/cm2 per hour) that was unaffected by renal insufficiency [16].
  • It was found in rats that salicylate increased intestinal monosaccharide uptake in vitro and reversed the inhibitory effects induced by cell-free preparations of Staphylococcus sp., Candida sp. and Klebsiella sp. In vivo, salicylates increased net water absorption in rat jejunum exposed to cell-free preparations of various micro-organisms [17].

Biological context of Jejunum


Anatomical context of Jejunum


Associations of Jejunum with chemical compounds

  • Maximal unstirred layer thickness for the human jejunum, calculated from previous studies of glucose absorption, yielded a mean value of only 40 microns (range: 23 to 65 microns) [28].
  • As luminal Mg concentration was increased, the rate of absorption in the jejunum rose progressively with a tendency towards saturation at the higher concentrations [29].
  • We conclude, therefore, that the normal jejunum actively secretes chloride, but that this is masked by greater absorptive processes when balanced electrolyte solutions are perfused [30].
  • Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum [31].
  • The effects of glucose and fructose on water and sodium absorption in the human jejunum were compared to assess the relative contribution of active and passive sugar stimulation of sodium transport [32].

Gene context of Jejunum

  • In the stomach CA II was the dominating isoenzyme, whereas the jejunum and the colon contained considerable amounts of both forms [33].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a family with juvenile polyposis with a clear predisposition to malignancy, including carcinoma of the jejunum, APC and MCC were not the defective genes causing the condition [34].
  • Our aim was to ascertain whether ApoC-II and ApoC-III were present in human and rat jejunum, and if so, whether their presence was altered by fat feeding [35].
  • MUC2 mRNA was highly expressed in normal jejunum, ileum, and colon, compared with very low levels in normal bronchus and gallbladder [36].
  • In functional assays, inhibitors of PP2A block rundown of basal CFTR currents and increase channel activity in excised patches of airway epithelia and in intact mouse jejunum [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Jejunum

  • Perfusion studies of the normal human jejunum were performed to test whether dihydroxy bile acids and hydroxy fatty acids inhibit the absorption of oleic acid, since previous reports documented their inhibitory effects on the absorption of several other organic solutes [38].
  • The presence of endothelin-1 messenger RNA was demonstrated by Northern-blot hybridization in the whole colon and pooled ileal and colonic mucosa, but not in the whole jejunum [39].
  • Using a triple-lumen gut perfusion technique, the net flux of water and electrolytes in the jejunum of 5 healthy volunteers was measured before, during and after an intravenous infusion of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) [40].
  • Four patients received home parenteral nutrition (mean residual jejunum, 83 cm), and 4 did not (mean ileum resection, 106 cm) [41].
  • Intrajejunal distention with a balloon or infusion of hyperosmolar mannitol into the proximal jejunum stimulates acid secretion only in subjects with portacaval shunt [42].


  1. Pathogenesis of Shigella diarrhea. XVI. Selective targetting of Shiga toxin to villus cells of rabbit jejunum explains the effect of the toxin on intestinal electrolyte transport. Kandel, G., Donohue-Rolfe, A., Donowitz, M., Keusch, G.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Transmissible gastroenteritis. Mucosal ion transport in acute viral enteritis. McClung, H.J., Butler, D.G., Kerzner, B., Gall, D.G., Hamilton, J.R. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of altered intestinal permeability in the pathogenesis of salmonella diarrhea in the rhesus monkey. Kinsey, M.D., Dammin, G.J., Formal, S.B., Giannella, R.A. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Intestinal uptake of hexoses and fatty acids in tumor-bearing rats. Thomson, A.B., Rennie, P.S., Walker, K., Cheeseman, C. Cancer Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Antitumor activity and biochemical effects of aphidicolin glycinate (NSC 303812) alone and in combination with cisplatin in vivo. O'Dwyer, P.J., Moyer, J.D., Suffness, M., Harrison, S.D., Cysyk, R., Hamilton, T.C., Plowman, J. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Reversal of dementia associated with Whipple's disease by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, drugs that penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Ryser, R.J., Locksley, R.M., Eng, S.C., Dobbins, W.O., Schoenknecht, F.D., Rubin, C.E. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  7. The effect of intraluminal tryptophan and phenylalanine on small intestinal motility in the conscious dog. Bull, J.S., Grundy, D., Scratcherd, T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Release of immunoreactive serotonin into the lumen of the feline gut in response to vagal nerve stimulation. Ahlman, H., DeMagistris, L., Zinner, M., Jaffe, B.M. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Folate conjugase: two separate activities in human jejunum. Reisenauer, A.M., Krumdieck, C.L., Halsted, C.H. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  10. Somatostatin: abundance of immunoreactive hormone in rat stomach and pancreas. Arimura, A., Sato, H., Dupont, A., Nishi, N., Schally, A.V. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  11. The mesenchymal winged helix transcription factor Fkh6 is required for the control of gastrointestinal proliferation and differentiation. Kaestner, K.H., Silberg, D.G., Traber, P.G., Schütz, G. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Abnormal passive chloride absorption in cystic fibrosis jejunum functionally opposes the classic chloride secretory defect. Russo, M.A., Hogenauer, C., Coates, S.W., Santa Ana, C.A., Porter, J.L., Rosenblatt, R.L., Emmett, M., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Increase in radioresponse of murine tumors by treatment with indomethacin. Furuta, Y., Hunter, N., Barkley, T., Hall, E., Milas, L. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Differentiation status of rat enterocytes after intestinal adaptation to jejunoileal bypass. Albert, V., Young, G.P. Gut (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Preoperative and intraoperative localisation of gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin. Lau, W.Y., Fan, S.T., Wong, S.H., Wong, K.P., Poon, G.P., Chu, K.W., Yip, W.C., Wong, K.K. Gut (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Intestinal excretion of oxalate in chronic renal failure. Hatch, M., Freel, R.W., Vaziri, N.D. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Effects of salicylate on intestinal absorption: in vitro and in vivo studies with enterotoxigenic micro-organisms. Burke, V., Gracey, M. Gut (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. Thiamine transport across the rat intestine. I. Normal characteristics. Hoyumpa, A.M., Middleton, H.M., Wilson, F.A., Schenker, S. Gastroenterology (1975) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of 13-norleucin motilin on water and ion transport in the human jejunum. Kachel, G.W., Frase, L.L., Domschke, W., Chey, W.Y., Krejs, G.J. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Intestinal calcium absorption is enhanced by D-glucose in diabetic and control rats. Younoszai, M.K., Nathan, R. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Intestinal absorption of bile acids in the rabbit: different transport rates in jejunum and ileum. Aldini, R., Montagnani, M., Roda, A., Hrelia, S., Biagi, P.L., Roda, E. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Oral prostaglandin E analogues induce intestinal migrating motor complexes after a meal in dogs. Evidence for a central mechanism. Staumont, G., Fioramonti, J., Frexinos, J., Bueno, L. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Fetal bile salt metabolism. The intestinal absorption of bile salt. Lester, R., Smallwood, R.A., Little, J.M., Brown, A.S., Piasecki, G.J., Jackson, B.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. A delta F508 mutation in mouse cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator results in a temperature-sensitive processing defect in vivo. French, P.J., van Doorninck, J.H., Peters, R.H., Verbeek, E., Ameen, N.A., Marino, C.R., de Jonge, H.R., Bijman, J., Scholte, B.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. PepT1-mediated epithelial transport of dipeptides and cephalexin is enhanced by luminal leptin in the small intestine. Buyse, M., Berlioz, F., Guilmeau, S., Tsocas, A., Voisin, T., Péranzi, G., Merlin, D., Laburthe, M., Lewin, M.J., Rozé, C., Bado, A. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Biologic effects of epidermal growth factor in human fetal jejunum. Ménard, D., Arsenault, P., Pothier, P. Gastroenterology (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation and characterization of a putative intestinal stem cell fraction from mouse jejunum. Dekaney, C.M., Rodriguez, J.M., Graul, M.C., Henning, S.J. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Physiological measurements of luminal stirring in the dog and human small bowel. Levitt, M.D., Furne, J.K., Strocchi, A., Anderson, B.W., Levitt, D.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. Magnesium absorption in the human small intestine. Results in normal subjects, patients with chronic renal disease, and patients with absorptive hypercalciuria. Brannan, P.G., Vergne-Marini, P., Pak, C.Y., Hull, A.R., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Active chloride secretion in the normal human jejunum. Davis, G.R., Santa Ana, C.A., Morawski, S., Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  31. Cholesterol reduces the effects of dihydroxy bile acids and fatty acids on water and solute transport in the human jejunum. Broor, S.L., Slota, T., Ammon, H.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  32. Stimulation of active and passive sodium absorption by sugars in the human jejunum. Fordtran, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Amount and distribution of carbonic anhydrases CA I and CA II in the gastrointestinal tract. Lönnerholm, G., Selking, O., Wistrand, P.J. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
  34. Exclusion of APC and MCC as the gene defect in one family with familial juvenile polyposis. Leggett, B.A., Thomas, L.R., Knight, N., Healey, S., Chenevix-Trench, G., Searle, J. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. Detection of apolipoprotein C in human and rat enterocytes. Schonfeld, G., Grimme, N., Alpers, D. J. Cell Biol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  36. Heterogeneity of mucin gene expression in normal and neoplastic tissues. Ho, S.B., Niehans, G.A., Lyftogt, C., Yan, P.S., Cherwitz, D.L., Gum, E.T., Dahiya, R., Kim, Y.S. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is regulated by a direct interaction with the protein phosphatase 2A. Thelin, W.R., Kesimer, M., Tarran, R., Kreda, S.M., Grubb, B.R., Sheehan, J.K., Stutts, M.J., Milgram, S.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  38. Effects of dihydroxy bile acids and hydroxy fatty acids on the absorption of oleic acid in the human jejunum. Wanitschke, R., Ammon, H.V. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  39. Endothelin in the gastrointestinal tract. Presence of endothelinlike immunoreactivity, endothelin-1 messenger RNA, endothelin receptors, and pharmacological effect. Takahashi, K., Jones, P.M., Kanse, S.M., Lam, H.C., Spokes, R.A., Ghatei, M.A., Bloom, S.R. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. The effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide on human jejunal water and electrolyte transport. Helman, C.A., Barbezat, G.O. Gastroenterology (1977) [Pubmed]
  41. Glucagon-like peptide 2 improves nutrient absorption and nutritional status in short-bowel patients with no colon. Jeppesen, P.B., Hartmann, B., Thulesen, J., Graff, J., Lohmann, J., Hansen, B.S., Tofteng, F., Poulsen, S.S., Madsen, J.L., Holst, J.J., Mortensen, P.B. Gastroenterology (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Intestinal phase of gastric acid secretion in humans with and without portacaval shunt. Lenz, H.J., Hogan, D.L., Isenberg, J.I. Gastroenterology (1985) [Pubmed]
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