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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor.

Adenosine (ADO) is an inhibitory neuromodulator that can increase nociceptive thresholds in response to noxious stimulation. Inhibition of the ADO-metabolizing enzyme, adenosine kinase ( AK) increases extracellular ADO concentrations at sites of tissue trauma and AK inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. N7-((1'R,2'S,3'R,4'S)-2',3'-dihydroxy-4'-amino-cyclopentyl)-4-amino-5-bromo-pyrrolo[2,3-a]pyrimidine (A-286501) is a novel and potent (IC50=0.47 nM) carbocyclic nucleoside AK inhibitor that has no significant activity (IC50 >100 microM) at other sites of ADO interaction (A1, A2A, A3 receptors, ADO transporter, and ADO deaminase) or other (IC50 value >10 microM) neurotransmitter and peptide receptors, ion channel proteins, neurotransmitter reuptake sites and enzymes, including cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. A-286501 showed equivalent potency to inhibit AK from several mammalian species and kinetic studies revealed that A-286501 was a reversible and competitive inhibitor with respect to ADO and non-competitive with respect to MgATP2-. A-286501 was orally effective to reduce nociception in animal models of acute (thermal), inflammatory (formalin and carrageenan), and neuropathic (L5/L6 nerve ligation and streptozotocin-induced diabetic) pain. A-286501 was particularly potent (ED50=1 micromol/kg, p.o.) to reduce carrageenan-induced inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia as compared to its analgesic actions in other pain models (acute and neuropathic) and its ability to alter hemodynamic function and motor performance. A-286501 was also effective to reduce carrageenan-induced paw edema and myeloperoxidase activity, a measure of neutrophil influx (ED50=10 micromol/kg, p.o.), in the injured paw. The anti-nociceptive effects of A-286501 in the L5/L6 nerve injury model of neuropathic pain (ED50=20 micromol/kg, p.o.) were not blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone, but were blocked by the ADO receptor antagonist, theophylline. Following repeated administration, A-286501 showed less potential to produce tolerance as compared to morphine. Thus, A-286501 is a structurally novel AK inhibitor that effectively attenuates nociception by a non-opioid, non-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ADO, receptor mediated mechanism.[1]


  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of A-286501, a novel orally active adenosine kinase inhibitor. Jarvis, M.F., Yu, H., McGaraughty, S., Wismer, C.T., Mikusa, J., Zhu, C., Chu, K., Kohlhaas, K., Cowart, M., Lee, C.H., Stewart, A.O., Cox, B.F., Polakowski, J., Kowaluk, E.A. Pain (2002) [Pubmed]
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