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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicity of tributyltin and triphenyltin to early life-stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

Sperm cell and embryo toxicity tests using the Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were performed to assess the toxicity of tributyltin chloride, bis(tributyltin)oxide, triphenyltin acetate, and triphenyltin hydroxide. Toxicity values (mean effective concentration [EC50]) ranged from 2.97 to 18.5 microg/L for sperm cells and from 1.11 to 2.62 microg/L for embryos. For sperm cells, the toxicity of the two tributyl compounds was significantly greater than that of two triphenyl compounds; for embryos, the triphenyl compounds appeared to be more toxic. Study of embryotoxic effects highlighted closely concentration-dependent damages, the most sensitive stages corresponding to the crucial phases of differentiation (gastrula and prisma). Both EC50 and no-observed-effect concentration values for the four organotin compounds are similar to those reported in the literature for early life stages of other marine organisms.[1]


  1. Toxicity of tributyltin and triphenyltin to early life-stages of Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Novelli, A.A., Argese, E., Tagliapietra, D., Bettiol, C., Ghirardini, A.V. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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