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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Gastrula


High impact information on Gastrula

  • Extracellular levels of Sizzled and Chordin in the gastrula embryo and enzyme reaction constants were all in the 10(-8) M range, consistent with a physiological role in the regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning [3].
  • Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family actively promote ventral cell fates, such as epidermis and blood, in the vertebrate gastrula [4].
  • Smad2 signals serve to restrict the site of primitive streak formation and establish anterior-posterior identity within the epiblast [5].
  • Following ubiquitous maternal and zygotic expression, highest levels of oep mRNA are found in the gastrula margin and in axial structures and forebrain [6].
  • We have isolated two Xenopus relatives of murine Sox17 expressed in gastrula presumptive endoderm [7].

Biological context of Gastrula


Anatomical context of Gastrula


Associations of Gastrula with chemical compounds

  • Inhibition of mRNA transcription with actinomycin D shows that the epidermal antigen is certainly transcribed by the late gastrula stage (stage 12) [18].
  • The oocyte-type tyrosine tRNA precursors are present in oocytes, very abundant in gastrula embryos, but absent from postembryonic somatic cells [19].
  • At gastrula stage Sp88 transcripts are almost completely confined to the nucleus [Lev, Z., Thomas, T. L., Lee, A. S., Angerer, R. C., Britten, R. J. & Davidson, E. H. (1980) Dev. Biol, 75, in press] [20].
  • No benzidine-positive cells or beta H1-globin mRNA expression was detected at the primitive streak or neural plate stage of development (E7.5) [21].
  • Treatment of late blastula/early gastrula stage Xenopus embryos with all-trans retinoic acid results in disruption of the primary body axis through effects on both mesoderm and neuroectoderm [22].

Gene context of Gastrula


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Gastrula


  1. Essential role of CREB family proteins during Xenopus embryogenesis. Lutz, B., Schmid, W., Niehrs, C., Schütz, G. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. The aquatic vertebrate embryo as a sentinel for toxins: zebrafish embryo dechorionation and perivitelline space microinjection. Mizell, M., Romig, E.S. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Embryonic dorsal-ventral signaling: secreted frizzled-related proteins as inhibitors of tolloid proteinases. Lee, H.X., Ambrosio, A.L., Reversade, B., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Patterning the zebrafish axial skeleton requires early chordin function. Fisher, S., Halpern, M.E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Smad2 signaling in extraembryonic tissues determines anterior-posterior polarity of the early mouse embryo. Waldrip, W.R., Bikoff, E.K., Hoodless, P.A., Wrana, J.L., Robertson, E.J. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Positional cloning identifies zebrafish one-eyed pinhead as a permissive EGF-related ligand required during gastrulation. Zhang, J., Talbot, W.S., Schier, A.F. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Xsox17alpha and -beta mediate endoderm formation in Xenopus. Hudson, C., Clements, D., Friday, R.V., Stott, D., Woodland, H.R. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. UTF1, a novel transcriptional coactivator expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cells and extra-embryonic cells. Okuda, A., Fukushima, A., Nishimoto, M., Orimo, A., Yamagishi, T., Nabeshima, Y., Kuro-o, M., Nabeshima, Y., Boon, K., Keaveney, M., Stunnenberg, H.G., Muramatsu, M. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Evidence for translocation of DNA sequences during sea urchin embryogenesis. Dickinson, D.G., Baker, R.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  10. A conserved family of elav-like genes in vertebrates. Good, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Frizzled-8 is expressed in the Spemann organizer and plays a role in early morphogenesis. Deardorff, M.A., Tan, C., Conrad, L.J., Klein, P.S. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Xbra functions as a switch between cell migration and convergent extension in the Xenopus gastrula. Kwan, K.M., Kirschner, M.W. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Dorsoventral patterning in Xenopus: inhibition of ventral signals by direct binding of chordin to BMP-4. Piccolo, S., Sasai, Y., Lu, B., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Activins are expressed early in Xenopus embryogenesis and can induce axial mesoderm and anterior structures. Thomsen, G., Woolf, T., Whitman, M., Sokol, S., Vaughan, J., Vale, W., Melton, D.A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. The homeobox gene goosecoid controls cell migration in Xenopus embryos. Niehrs, C., Keller, R., Cho, K.W., De Robertis, E.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Structural genes adjacent to interspersed repetitive DNA sequences. Davidson, E.H., Hough, B.R., Klein, W.H., Britten, R.J. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Myogenesis in primary cell cultures from Drosophila melanogaster: protein synthesis and actin heterogeneity during development. Storti, R.V., Horovitch, S.J., Scott, M.P., Rich, A., Pardue, M.L. Cell (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Development of the ectoderm in Xenopus: tissue specification and the role of cell association and division. Jones, E.A., Woodland, H.R. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Oocyte and somatic tyrosine tRNA genes in Xenopus laevis. Stutz, F., Gouilloud, E., Clarkson, S.G. Genes Dev. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Four sizes of transcript produced by a single sea urchin gene expressed in early embryos. Lee, A.S., Thomas, T.L., Lev, Z., Britten, R.J., Davidson, E.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  21. Initiation of hematopoiesis and vasculogenesis in murine yolk sac explants. Palis, J., McGrath, K.E., Kingsley, P.D. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. v-erbA and citral reduce the teratogenic effects of all-trans retinoic acid and retinol, respectively, in Xenopus embryogenesis. Schuh, T.J., Hall, B.L., Kraft, J.C., Privalsky, M.L., Kimelman, D. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. A conserved system for dorsal-ventral patterning in insects and vertebrates involving sog and chordin. Holley, S.A., Jackson, P.D., Sasai, Y., Lu, B., De Robertis, E.M., Hoffmann, F.M., Ferguson, E.L. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Wnt signaling in Xenopus embryos inhibits bmp4 expression and activates neural development. Baker, J.C., Beddington, R.S., Harland, R.M. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. T (Brachyury) is a direct target of Wnt3a during paraxial mesoderm specification. Yamaguchi, T.P., Takada, S., Yoshikawa, Y., Wu, N., McMahon, A.P. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Targeted disruption of Fgf8 causes failure of cell migration in the gastrulating mouse embryo. Sun, X., Meyers, E.N., Lewandoski, M., Martin, G.R. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Dorsalization of the neural tube by Xenopus tiarin, a novel patterning factor secreted by the flanking nonneural head ectoderm. Tsuda, H., Sasai, N., Matsuo-Takasaki, M., Sakuragi, M., Murakami, Y., Sasai, Y. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Epiblast and primitive-streak origins of the endoderm in the gastrulating chick embryo. Lawson, A., Schoenwolf, G.C. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Isolation and characterization of Vsx1, a novel mouse CVC paired-like homeobox gene expressed during embryogenesis and in the retina. Ohtoshi, A., Justice, M.J., Behringer, R.R. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  30. Differential gene expression during early murine yolk sac development. Palis, J., Kingsley, P.D. Mol. Reprod. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Stimulation of premature retinoic acid synthesis in Xenopus embryos following premature expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH1. Ang, H.L., Duester, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. A long polypyrimidine:polypurine sequence in 5' flanking region of arylsulfatase gene of sea urchin embryo. Yamamoto, T., Akasaka, K., Irie, S., Shimada, H. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
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