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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

SNT1/FRS2 mediates germinal vesicle breakdown induced by an activated FGF receptor1 in Xenopus oocytes.

The docking protein SNT1/FRS2 (fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2) is implicated in the transmission of extracellular signals from the fibroblast growth factor receptor ( FGFR), which plays vital roles during embryogenesis. Activating FGFR mutations cause several craniosynostoses and dwarfism syndromes in humans. Here we show that the Xenopus homolog of mammalian FRS-2 (XFRS2) is essential for the induction of oocyte maturation by an XFGFR1 harboring an activating mutation (XFGFR1act). Using a dominant-negative form of kinase suppressor of Ras, we show the Mek activity is required for germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) induced by co-expression of XFGFR1act and XFRS2, but this activity is not required for progesterone-induced GVBD. Furthermore, Mek/ MAPK activity is critical for the induction and/or maintenance of H1 kinase activity at metaphase of meiosis II in progesterone-treated oocytes. An activated XFGFR1 containing a mutation in the phospholipase Cgamma binding site (XFGFR1actY672F) displayed a reduced ability to induce cell-cycle progression in oocytes, suggesting phospholipase Cgamma may not be necessary but that it augments XFGFR signaling in this system. Oocytes co-expressing XFGFR1act and XFRS2 showed substantial H1 kinase activity, but this activity was blocked when the oocytes were treated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Although phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity is essential for XFGFR1act/XFRS2-induced oocyte maturation, this activity is not required for maturation induced by progesterone. Finally, ectopic expression of Xspry2, a negative regulator of XFGFR signaling, greatly reduced MAPK activation and GVBD induced by the expression of either XFGFR1act plus XFRS2 or activated Ras (H-RasV12). In contrast, Xspry2 did not prevent GVBD induced by an activated form of Raf1, suggesting that Xspry2 exerts its inhibitory function upstream or parallel to Raf and downstream of Ras.[1]


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