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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interleukin-1 beta- mediated suppression of RXR:RAR transactivation of the Ntcp promoter is JNK-dependent.

Bile flow is rapidly and markedly reduced in hepatic inflammation, correlating with suppression of critical hepatic bile acid transporter gene expression, including the principal hepatic bile acid importer, the Na(+)/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (Ntcp, Slc10a1). Endotoxin treatment of rats and interleukin-1 beta ( IL-1 beta) treatment of liver-derived HepG2 cells leads to a marked decline in the nuclear binding activity of a main Ntcp gene regulator, the nuclear receptor heterodimer retinoid X receptor:retinoic acid receptor (RXR:RAR). How IL-1 beta signaling leads to reduced RXR:RAR nuclear binding activity is unknown, and we sought to determine whether mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) pathways were involved. IL-1 beta treatment of cultured primary rat hepatocytes markedly reduced Ntcp RNA levels and Ntcp promoter activity in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Pretreatment with inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ( ERK, PD98059) or p38 MAPK (SB203580) did not affect IL-1 beta- mediated suppression of Ntcp gene expression, whereas curcumin, a derivative of the spice turmeric and a recently described inhibitor of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), completely ameliorated the effects of IL-1 beta. Co-transfection of a JNK expression plasmid inhibited RXR:RAR- mediated activation of the Ntcp promoter, while a dominant negative JNK expression plasmid completely blocked IL-1 beta-mediated suppression. Curcumin, but not PD98059 or SB203580, inhibited IL-1 beta-mediated suppression of nuclear RXR:RAR binding activity, which correlated with inhibition of JNK phosphorylation and phospho-JNK-mediated phosphorylation of RXR. Taken together, these data provide evidence supporting a novel player (JNK), as well as its inhibitor (curcumin), in inflammation-mediated regulation of hepatobiliary transporters and correlate JNK-dependent RXR phosphorylation with reduced RXR-dependent hepatic gene expression.[1]


  1. Interleukin-1 beta-mediated suppression of RXR:RAR transactivation of the Ntcp promoter is JNK-dependent. Li, D., Zimmerman, T.L., Thevananther, S., Lee, H.Y., Kurie, J.M., Karpen, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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