The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Protein kinase Czeta mediated Raf-1/extracellular-regulated kinase activation by daunorubicin.

In light of the emerging concept of a protective function of the mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK) pathway under stress conditions, we investigated the influence of the anthracycline daunorubicin (DNR) on MAPK signaling and its possible contribution to DNR-induced cytotoxicity. We show that DNR increased phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinases (ERKs) and stimulated activities of both Raf-1 and extracellular- regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) within 10 to 30 minutes in U937 cells. ERK1 stimulation was completely blocked by either the mitogen- induced extracellular kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD98059 or the Raf-1 inhibitor 8-bromo-cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). However, only partial inhibition of Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation was observed with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (N-Ac). Moreover, the xanthogenate compound D609 that inhibits DNR-induced phosphatidylcholine (PC) hydrolysis and subsequent diacylglycerol (DAG) production, as well as wortmannin that blocks phosphoinositide-3 kinase ( PI3K) stimulation, only partially inhibited Raf-1 and ERK1 stimulation. We also observed that DNR stimulated protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta), an atypical PKC isoform, and that both D609 and wortmannin significantly inhibited DNR-triggered PKCzeta activation. Finally, we found that the expression of PKCzeta kinase-defective mutant resulted in the abrogation of DNR-induced ERK phosphorylation. Altogether, these results demonstrate that DNR activates the classical Raf-1/MEK/ ERK pathway and that Raf-1 activation is mediated through complex signaling pathways that involve at least 2 contributors: PC-derived DAG and PI3K products that converge toward PKCzeta. Moreover, we show that both Raf-1 and MEK inhibitors, as well as PKCzeta inhibition, sensitized cells to DNR-induced cytotoxicity.[1]


  1. Protein kinase Czeta mediated Raf-1/extracellular-regulated kinase activation by daunorubicin. Mas, V.M., Hernandez, H., Plo, I., Bezombes, C., Maestre, N., Quillet-Mary, A., Filomenko, R., Demur, C., Jaffrézou, J.P., Laurent, G. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities