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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

GA-binding protein (GABP) and Sp1 are required, along with retinoid receptors, to mediate retinoic acid responsiveness of CD18 (beta 2 leukocyte integrin): a novel mechanism of transcriptional regulation in myeloid cells.

CD18 (beta(2) leukocyte integrin) is transcriptionally regulated in myeloid cells, but the mechanisms that increase its expression in response to retinoic acid (RA) have not been defined. The CD18 promoter was activated by RA treatment in stably transfected U937 myeloid cells. We identified a retinoic acid response element (RARE) that lies nearly 900 nucleotides upstream of the CD18 transcriptional start site that was bound by the RA receptors, retinoic acid receptor ( RAR) and retinoic X receptor (RXR). This RARE accounted for one half of the RA responsiveness of CD18. However, unexpectedly, one half of the dynamic response to RA was mediated by the 96-nucleotide CD18 minimal promoter, which lacks a recognizable RARE. Binding sites for the ets transcription factor, GA-binding protein (GABP), and Sp1 were required for full RA responsiveness of both the CD18 minimal promoter and the full-length promoter. The ets sites conferred RA responsiveness on an otherwise unresponsive heterologous promoter, and RA responsiveness was directly related to the number of ets sites. The transcriptional coactivator p300/ CBP physically interacted with GABP in vivo, and p300 increased the responsiveness of the CD18 promoter to RA. These studies demonstrate a novel role for non- RAR transcription factors in mediating RA activation in myeloid cells. They support the concept that transcription factors other than RARs are required for RA-activated gene expression. We hypothesize that a multiprotein complex--an enhanceosome--that includes GABP, other transcription factors, and coactivators, dynamically regulates CD18 expression in myeloid cells.[1]


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