The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Development of the first force-controlled robot for otoneurosurgery.

OBJECTIVE: In some surgical specialties (eg, orthopedics), robots are already used in the operating room for bony milling work. Otological surgery and otoneurosurgery may also greatly benefit from the enhanced precision of robotics. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study on robotic milling of oak wood and human temporal bone specimen. METHODS: A standard industrial robot with a six-degrees-of-freedom serial kinematics was used, with force feedback to proportionally control the robot speed. Different milling modes and characteristic path parameters were evaluated to generate milling paths based on computer-aided design ( CAD) geometry data of a cochlear implant and an implantable hearing system. RESULTS: The best-suited strategy proved to be the spiral horizontal milling mode with the burr held perpendicular to the temporal bone surface. To reduce groove height, the distance between paths should equal half the radius of the cutting burr head. Because of the vibration of the robot's own motors, a high oscillation of the SD of forces was encountered. This oscillation dropped drastically to nearly 0 Newton (N) when the burr head made contact with the dura mater, because of its damping characteristics. The cutting burr could be kept in contact with the dura mater for an extended period without damaging it, because of the burr's blunt head form. The robot moved the burr smoothly according to the encountered resistances. CONCLUSION: The study reports the first development of a functional robotic milling procedure for otoneurosurgery with force-based speed control. Future plans include implementation of ultrasound-based local navigation and performance of robotic mastoidectomy.[1]


  1. Development of the first force-controlled robot for otoneurosurgery. Federspil, P.A., Geisthoff, U.W., Henrich, D., Plinkert, P.K. Laryngoscope (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities