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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction and suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and generation of oxygen radicals by procymidone in liver, kidney and lung of CD1 mice.

Although chronic administration of procymidone (a widely used dicarboximide fungicide) leads to an increased incidence of liver tumors in mice, short-term genotoxicity studies proved negative. As cytochrome P450 ( CYP) induction has been linked to non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, we investigated whether procymidone administration causes induction of CYP-dependent monooxygenases in liver, kidney and lung microsomes of male Swiss Albino CD1 mice after single or repeated (daily for three consecutive days) i.p. treatment with either 400 or 800 (1/10 or 1/20 of the DL(50)) mgkg(-1) b.w. procymidone. CYP content and CYP3A1/2, 1A1, 1A2, 2B1/2, 2E1, 2A, 2D9 and 2C11 supported oxidations were studied using either the regio- and stereo-selective hydroxylation of testosterone as multibiomarker or highly specific substrates as probes of various CYPs. While a single dose was uneffective, multiple procymidone administration lead to marked inductions of various monooxygenases: CYP3A1/2 in liver and lung (as measured by N-demethylation of aminopyrine and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase); CYP2E1 in liver (p-nitrophenol hydroxylation); CYP1A1 in liver and kidney (deethylation of ethoxyresorufin). Several hydroxylations were induced in the liver, including the CYP2A-linked 7 alpha (14-fold) as well as 6 alpha (22-fold), 6 beta, 16 beta and 2 beta hydroxylases. The pattern of inductions/suppressions recorded in the three different tissues suggests that procymidone exerts complex effects on the CYP profile. Tissue-specific trends included a large number of inductions in the liver and suppressions in the lung. The main inductions were corroborated by immunoblotting analyses and Northern blotting showed that inductions of CYP3A1/2, CYP2E1 and CYP1A1/2 were paralleled by increased mRNA levels. It was also found that CYP over-expression generates large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially in liver. These data may explain why in vitro short-term genotoxicity studies on procymidone were negative, whereas in vivo long-term carcinogenesis studies turned out positive: long-term CYP induction (e.g. oxygen centered free radicals over-production) can have a co-carcinogenic and/or promoting potential.[1]


  1. Induction and suppression of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and generation of oxygen radicals by procymidone in liver, kidney and lung of CD1 mice. Sapone, A., Affatato, A., Canistro, D., Broccoli, M., Trespidi, S., Pozzetti, L., Biagi, G.L., Cantelli-Forti, G., Paolini, M. Mutat. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
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