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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Evidence for multiple distinctly localized adenylyl cyclase isoforms in mammalian spermatozoa.

In addition to a bicarbonate-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), mammalian spermatozoa, like somatic cells, appear to contain receptor/G protein-regulated AC activity that contributes to the modulation of specialized cell processes. This study provides evidence that agents, known to influence somatic membrane-associated AC (mAC) but apparently not germ cell sAC, can modulate cAMP production and functional state in mouse spermatozoa. Specifically, forskolin significantly enhanced cAMP production and capacitation, while inclusion of 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine significantly blocked these responses. Furthermore, GTPgammaS and NaF stimulated cAMP, but GDPbetaS and mastoparan had no apparent effect, consistent with recent evidence that G(s), but not G(i), contributes to AC/cAMP regulation in uncapacitated cells. In addition, intact mouse spermatozoa were screened for all known mAC isoforms by immunolocalization, using commercially available specific antibodies. The most abundant isoforms appeared to be AC2, AC3, and AC8, each with distinct distributions in the acrosomal and flagellar regions; AC1 and AC4 also appeared to be present, although less abundantly, in the midpiece and acrosomal cap regions, respectively. Intriguingly, however, Western blotting revealed that the major immunoreactive proteins in mouse sperm lysates were considerably smaller (approximately 50-60 kDa) than their somatic cell counterparts, suggesting that mature spermatozoa contain multiple mACs which may function in a shortened form. Of particular interest were AC3 and AC8, located in the same regions as, and hence possibly directly associated with, specific cell surface receptors and G proteins that are able to regulate the spermatozoon's acquisition and maintenance of fertilizing ability via changes in AC/cAMP.[1]


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