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Disease relevance of Spermatozoa


Psychiatry related information on Spermatozoa


High impact information on Spermatozoa

  • PMS2-deficient males are infertile, producing only abnormal spermatozoa [11].
  • In the male germline, a developmentally regulated demethylation of Xist occurs at the onset of meiosis and is retained in mature spermatozoa [12].
  • The low enzyme activity in the infertile patients was not caused by the presence of dead spermatozoa or spermatozoa with leaky plasma membranes, since mitochondrial protein synthesis and lactate dehydrogenase activity were normal in these patients [13].
  • Monensin-activated spermatozoa have normal morphology and normal amoeboid motility [14].
  • Transcription activator CREM (cyclic AMP-responsive element modulator) is highly expressed in postmeiotic cells, and CREM may be responsible for the activation of several haploid germ cell-specific genes involved in the structuring of the spermatozoon [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Spermatozoa

  • Systemic or intratesticular release of TNF alpha and IL1 beta have been implicated in the reduced testosterone biosynthesis and impaired production of competent spermatozoa found in human patients suffering from sepsis or chronic inflammation [16].
  • Fifteen- and twelve-mer random peptide phage display libraries were screened against paraformaldehyde-fixed spermatozoa and a number of sperm-binding peptides were identified [17].
  • Zona pellucida and progesterone-induced Ca2+ signaling and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa [18].
  • DESIGN: A case comparison of the surface expression of mannose-ligand receptors on motile spermatozoa from 10 known fertile males and from 10 normospermic men taking Ca2+ channel blockers who were seeking infertility treatment [19].
  • Similarly, the incidence of A23187-induced acrosome reaction after 1 and 6 h of incubation (19.8 +/- 2.7 and 20.0 +/- 2.4) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower when spermatozoa were incubated with PF from endometriosis patients in comparison with spermatozoa incubated with PF from the control group (34.6 +/- 9.8 and 34.4 +/- 1.1) [20].

Biological context of Spermatozoa


Anatomical context of Spermatozoa

  • The motility of chum salmon spermatozoa in a sodium chloride solution isotonic to seminal plasma is completely suppressed by approximately 10 millimoles of potassium per kilogram; topminnow spermatozoa, however, were immotile in a nonelectrolyte solution, and motility was induced by electrolytes, especially potassium [26].
  • In the midpiece of mature spermatozoa, PHGPx protein represents at least 50 percent of the capsule material that embeds the helix of mitochondria [27].
  • We propose that these organelles represent a pool of CD59 from which protein lost from spermatozoa, perhaps as a result of low level complement attack or of normal membrane turnover, can be replenished [28].
  • Glycerol treatment cytolyses the egg without affecting the ability of the VC to bind spermatozoa in a species-specific manner; however, in this system binding is not followed by the acrosome reaction [29].
  • However, although testes develop normally in mice lacking either Bik or Bim, adult bik-/-bim-/- males were infertile, with reduced testicular cellularity and no spermatozoa [30].

Associations of Spermatozoa with chemical compounds


Gene context of Spermatozoa

  • Serologically defined HLA-A and HLA-B antigens are expressed in a haploid manner on the surface of spermatozoa [36].
  • The movement of spermatozoa is unaffected by cytochalasins, however, so there is no evidence that actin participates in locomotion [37].
  • However, in contrast to the common somatic histones, CENP-A is quantitatively retained in bull spermatozoa, and we have exploited this fact to purify CENP-A to apparent homogeneity [38].
  • Immunolocalization experiments on isolated spermatozoa show that the Pacrg protein is present in mature sperm [39].
  • In vitro, the fertilizing ability of Pcsk4 null spermatozoa was also found to be significantly reduced [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Spermatozoa


  1. Mice deficient for soluble adenylyl cyclase are infertile because of a severe sperm-motility defect. Esposito, G., Jaiswal, B.S., Xie, F., Krajnc-Franken, M.A., Robben, T.J., Strik, A.M., Kuil, C., Philipsen, R.L., van Duin, M., Conti, M., Gossen, J.A., Jaiswal, B.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Chromosomal breakage in human spermatozoa, a heterozygous effect of the Bloom syndrome mutation. Martin, R.H., Rademaker, A., German, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Exploring the mammalian neuromuscular system by analysis of mutations: spinal muscular atrophy and myotonia. Jockusch, H., Kaupmann, K., Gronemeier, M., Schleef, M., Klocke, R. Prog. Neurobiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. HIV-1 chemokine co-receptor CCR5 is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa. Muciaccia, B., Padula, F., Gandini, L., Lenzi, A., Stefanini, M. AIDS (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Absence of germline infection in male mice following intraventricular injection of adenovirus. Peters, A.H., Drumm, J., Ferrell, C., Roth, D.A., Roth, D.M., McCaman, M., Novak, P.L., Friedman, J., Engler, R., Braun, R.E. Mol. Ther. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Modified testicular expression of stress-associated "readthrough" acetylcholinesterase predicts male infertility. Mor, I., Grisaru, D., Titelbaum, L., Evron, T., Richler, C., Wahrman, J., Sternfeld, M., Yogev, L., Meiri, N., Seidman, S., Soreq, H. FASEB J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of phosphoseryl residues in protamines from mature mammalian spermatozoa. Pirhonen, A., Linnala-Kankkunen, A., Mäenpää, P.H. Biol. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Effect of daily spermatozoan production but not age on transit time of spermatozoa through the human epididymis. Johnson, L., Varner, D.D. Biol. Reprod. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Sexual maturation and fecundity of wild and domestic Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Clark, B.R., Price, E.O. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male infertility. Sikka, S.C., Rajasekaran, M., Hellstrom, W.J. J. Androl. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Male mice defective in the DNA mismatch repair gene PMS2 exhibit abnormal chromosome synapsis in meiosis. Baker, S.M., Bronner, C.E., Zhang, L., Plug, A.W., Robatzek, M., Warren, G., Elliott, E.A., Yu, J., Ashley, T., Arnheim, N., Flavell, R.A., Liskay, R.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Evidence that random and imprinted Xist expression is controlled by preemptive methylation. Norris, D.P., Patel, D., Kay, G.F., Penny, G.D., Brockdorff, N., Sheardown, S.A., Rastan, S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Deficiency of protein-carboxyl methylase in immotile spermatozoa of infertile men. Gagnon, C., Sherins, R.J., Phillips, D.M., Bardin, C.W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Vesicle fusion, pseudopod extension and amoeboid motility are induced in nematode spermatids by the ionophore monensin. Nelson, G.A., Ward, S. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Spermiogenesis deficiency and germ-cell apoptosis in CREM-mutant mice. Nantel, F., Monaco, L., Foulkes, N.S., Masquilier, D., LeMeur, M., Henriksén, K., Dierich, A., Parvinen, M., Sassone-Corsi, P. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Intratesticular delivery of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ceramide directly abrogates steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression and Leydig cell steroidogenesis in adult rats. Morales, V., Santana, P., Díaz, R., Tabraue, C., Gallardo, G., López Blanco, F., Hernández, I., Fanjul, L.F., Ruiz de Galarreta, C.M. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Selection of peptides targeting the human sperm surface using random peptide phage display identify ligands homologous to ZP3. Eidne, K.A., Henery, C.C., Aitken, R.J. Biol. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Zona pellucida and progesterone-induced Ca2+ signaling and acrosome reaction in human spermatozoa. Kirkman-Brown, J.C., Punt, E.L., Barratt, C.L., Publicover, S.J. J. Androl. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. The effect of calcium ion channel blockers on sperm fertilization potential. Benoff, S., Cooper, G.W., Hurley, I., Mandel, F.S., Rosenfeld, D.L., Scholl, G.M., Gilbert, B.R., Hershlag, A. Fertil. Steril. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of peritoneal fluid from infertile women with endometriosis on ionophore-stimulated acrosome loss. Tasdemir, M., Tasdemir, I., Kodama, H., Tanaka, T. Hum. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis. Foresta, C., Moro, E., Ferlin, A. Endocr. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Exocytosis in spermatozoa in response to progesterone and zona pellucida. Roldan, E.R., Murase, T., Shi, Q.X. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Phosphorylation of membrane-bound guanylate cyclase of sea urchin spermatozoa. Ward, G.E., Moy, G.W., Vacquier, V.D. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. erythro-9-[3-(2-Hydroxynonyl)]adenine is an inhibitor of sperm motility that blocks dynein ATPase and protein carboxylmethylase activities. Bouchard, P., Penningroth, S.M., Cheung, A., Gagnon, C., Bardin, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Maintenance of genetic integrity in frozen and freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa. Kusakabe, H., Szczygiel, M.A., Whittingham, D.G., Yanagimachi, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Osmolality and potassium ion: their roles in initiation of sperm motility in teleosts. Morisawa, M., Suzuki, K. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Dual function of the selenoprotein PHGPx during sperm maturation. Ursini, F., Heim, S., Kiess, M., Maiorino, M., Roveri, A., Wissing, J., Flohé, L. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Physiologic relevance of the membrane attack complex inhibitory protein CD59 in human seminal plasma: CD59 is present on extracellular organelles (prostasomes), binds cell membranes, and inhibits complement-mediated lysis. Rooney, I.A., Atkinson, J.P., Krul, E.S., Schonfeld, G., Polakoski, K., Saffitz, J.E., Morgan, B.P. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. A thermodynamic study of sperm-egg interaction. Elia, V., Rosati, F., Barone, G., Monroy, A., Liquori, A.M. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Concomitant loss of proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 antagonists Bik and Bim arrests spermatogenesis. Coultas, L., Bouillet, P., Loveland, K.L., Meachem, S., Perlman, H., Adams, J.M., Strasser, A. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification of the biochemical lesion produced by alpha-chlorohydrin in spermatozoa. Mohri, H., Suter, D.A., Brown-Woodman, P.D., White, I.G., Ridley, D.D. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  32. Membrane guanylate cyclase is a cell-surface receptor with homology to protein kinases. Singh, S., Lowe, D.G., Thorpe, D.S., Rodriguez, H., Kuang, W.J., Dangott, L.J., Chinkers, M., Goeddel, D.V., Garbers, D.L. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. Y chromosome visibility in quinacrine-stained human spermatozoa. Roberts, A.M., Goodall, H. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Use of Ficoll-sodium metrizoate density gradient to separate human X-and Y-bearing spermatozoa. Shastry, P.R., Hegle, U.C., Rao, S.S. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Soluble adenylyl cyclase as an evolutionarily conserved bicarbonate sensor. Chen, Y., Cann, M.J., Litvin, T.N., Iourgenko, V., Sinclair, M.L., Levin, L.R., Buck, J. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. HLA genotyping by using spermatozoa: evidence for haploid gene expression. Arnaiz-Villena, A., Festenstein, H. Lancet (1976) [Pubmed]
  37. Caenorhabditis elegans spermatozoan locomotion: amoeboid movement with almost no actin. Nelson, G.A., Roberts, T.M., Ward, S. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Purification of the centromere-specific protein CENP-A and demonstration that it is a distinctive histone. Palmer, D.K., O'Day, K., Trong, H.L., Charbonneau, H., Margolis, R.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  39. Deletion of the Parkin coregulated gene causes male sterility in the quaking(viable) mouse mutant. Lorenzetti, D., Bishop, C.E., Justice, M.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Impaired fertility in mice deficient for the testicular germ-cell protease PC4. Mbikay, M., Tadros, H., Ishida, N., Lerner, C.P., De Lamirande, E., Chen, A., El-Alfy, M., Clermont, Y., Seidah, N.G., Chrétien, M., Gagnon, C., Simpson, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  41. Human seminal clusterin (SP-40,40). Isolation and characterization. O'Bryan, M.K., Baker, H.W., Saunders, J.R., Kirszbaum, L., Walker, I.D., Hudson, P., Liu, D.Y., Glew, M.D., d'Apice, A.J., Murphy, B.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. Sperm-related antigens, antibodies, and circulating immune complexes in sera of recently vasectomized men. Witkin, S.S., Zelikovsky, G., Bongiovanni, A.M., Geller, N., Good, R.A., Day, N.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  43. Human dynein and sperm pathology. Baccetti, B., Burrini, A.G., Pallini, V., Renieri, T. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  44. Evidence that cAMP-dependent protein kinase and a protein factor are involved in reactivation of triton X-100 models of sea urchin and starfish spermatozoa. Ishiguro, K., Murofushi, H., Sakai, H. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  45. Deficiency of pantothenate kinase 2 (Pank2) in mice leads to retinal degeneration and azoospermia. Kuo, Y.M., Duncan, J.L., Westaway, S.K., Yang, H., Nune, G., Xu, E.Y., Hayflick, S.J., Gitschier, J. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
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