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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sister-chromatid exchanges induced by vinyl esters and respective carboxylic acids in cultured human lymphocytes.

Vinyl acetate--an efficient inducer of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs)--is known to be hydrolyzed in mammalian cells into acetic acid and acetaldehyde, the latter being the likely metabolite responsible for the SCE induction. As similar hydrolysis to acetaldehyde and to a carboxylic acid is also expected for other vinyl esters, five such compounds--vinyl formate, vinyl chloroformate, vinyl propionate, vinyl crotonate and vinyl-2-ethylhexanoate--and five carboxylic acids--formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, crotonic acid and 2-ethylhexanoic acid--were tested for their ability to induce SCEs in cultured (72 h) human lymphocytes with a 48-h treatment, starting at 24 h after culture initiation. Vinyl formate, vinyl propionate and vinyl crotonate induced a clear dose-dependent increase in the number of SCEs/cell at concentrations of 0.125-0.5 mM and vinyl chloroformate at 0.063-1 mM, i.e., at roughly the same concentration range as vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde. Vinyl-2-ethylhexanoate required slightly higher concentrations (0.25-4 mM) for SCE induction. All of the carboxylic acids tested also elevated SCEs, but only slightly. Formic acid and crotonic acid produced some SCE increase at a concentration of 10 mM, acetic acid at 5 and 10 mM and propionic acid at 2.5 mM. 2-Ethylhexanoic acid induced SCEs at a lower concentration range (0.63-2.5 mM) than the other acids. The positive concentrations of the first three carboxylic acids lowered the pH of the culture medium immediately after the treatment by 0.5-1.0 pH unit (lowest observed pH 6.53). The pH differences from the control cultures became smaller in measurements done 24 h and 48 h after the beginning of treatment. Propionic acid and 2-ethylhexanoic acid affected medium pH only slightly (maximum drop 0.2 pH units) at the concentrations that induced SCEs. The results lend support to the idea that the efficient SCE induction observed with the vinyl esters results from the formation of acetaldehyde, with carboxylic acids--with the possible exception of 2-ethylhexanoic acid--playing no significant role. The slight SCE induction obtained with the carboxylic acids cannot be explained by lowered pH alone.[1]


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