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Chemical Compound Review

Luprosil     propanoic acid

Synonyms: Monoprop, Propcorn, Propkorn, Prozoin, propanate, ...
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Disease relevance of propionic acid


Psychiatry related information on propionic acid


High impact information on propionic acid

  • Human colonic bacteria ferment RS and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; major components of dietary fiber) to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly acetate, propionate, and butyrate [11].
  • The principal VFA in either the rumen or large intestine are acetate, propionate, and butyrate and are produced in a ratio varying from approximately 75:15:10 to 40:40:20 [12].
  • Using a newly developed radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-succinimidyl-3-[(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)-2-aminoethyldithio] propionate, we observed crosslinking between thrombospondin released from the platelets and surface-bound fibronectin or collagen [13].
  • The short chain aliphatic acid salts, butyrate and propionate, are effective inhibitors of histone deacetylation in chick oviduct at 2--5 mM; they also prevent the hormonal induction of the ovalbumin and transferrin genes [14].
  • Here we show that extinction training during withdrawal from chronic cocaine self-administration induces experience-dependent increases in the GluR1 and GluR2/3 subunits of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) glutamate receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell, a brain region that is critically involved in cocaine reward [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of propionic acid


Biological context of propionic acid

  • An essential feature in the modulation of the efficacy of synaptic transmission is rapid changes in the number of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors at post-synaptic sites on neurons [21].
  • In the simplest model for long-term potentiation, CaMKII is activated by Ca2+ influx through NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors and then potentiates synaptic efficacy by inducing synaptic insertion and increased single-channel conductance of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid) receptors [22].
  • Transfection of each change into a mut0 cell line with very low MCM mRNA (GM1673) demonstrated a lack of stimulation of propionate uptake in the absence and presence of hydroxycobalamin [23].
  • None of the diurnal rhythm in 14CO2 output from [26-14C]cholesterol resulted from diurnal variation in propionic acid or CO2-HCO-3 metabolism since constant infusion of [1-14C]propionic acid and [3-14C]propionic acid for 30 h revealed no diurnal variation in output of 14CO2 [24].
  • Side-chain oxidation begins either with hydroxylation at the 26-position, in which case the three-carbon fragment is released as propionic acid, or with hydroxylation at the 25-position, in which case the three-carbon fragment is released as acetone [25].

Anatomical context of propionic acid

  • The AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate) receptor is the predominant mediator of the ionotropic response to synaptically released glutamate in the hippocampus and it has been implicated in LTP maintenance [26].
  • Low-affinity AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl isoxazole propionic acid) and kainate glutamate receptors are also expressed by some glial cells, including oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) [27].
  • Neither propionate nor acetate reproduced this effect of HCO3-. 22Na efflux from preloaded hepatocytes was similarly increased approximately 10-fold by an in greater than out HCO3- concentration gradient [28].
  • Lymphocytes and platelets were loaded with the cytosolic pH (pHi) indicator 2'-7'-bis(carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein and acidified to pH approximately 6.6 with propionic acid [29].
  • Nafenopin (2-methyl-2-[P-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthyl)phenoxy] propionic acid; Su-13,437), a potent hypolipidemic hepatic peroxisome proliferator, was fed to male F344 rats at a dietary concentration of o.1% until the end of the experiment at 25 months [30].

Associations of propionic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of propionic acid

  • Both clones reconstitute propionate flux to normal levels in fibroblasts from patients genetically deficient in PCCA (pccA) [36].
  • Positron emission tomography scans in AD patients (n = 15) and control subjects (n = 12) measured both BuChE (using [(11)C]BMP) and AChE activity (using N-[(11)C] methylpiperidin-4-yl propionate, an established method) [37].
  • Uptake of short-chain fatty acids (lactate, pyruvate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) in oocytes expressing SLC5A8 was severalfold higher than in uninjected oocytes [38].
  • The caveolin scaffolding domain modifies 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor binding properties by inhibiting phospholipase A2 activity [39].
  • Selective binding of synapse-associated protein 97 to GluR-A alpha-amino-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit is determined by a novel sequence motif [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of propionic acid


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  14. Butyrate and related inhibitors of histone deacetylation block the induction of egg white genes by steroid hormones. McKnight, G.S., Hager, L., Palmiter, R.D. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Extinction-induced upregulation in AMPA receptors reduces cocaine-seeking behaviour. Sutton, M.A., Schmidt, E.F., Choi, K.H., Schad, C.A., Whisler, K., Simmons, D., Karanian, D.A., Monteggia, L.M., Neve, R.L., Self, D.W. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
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  17. Molecular and functional analysis of nicotinate catabolism in Eubacterium barkeri. Alhapel, A., Darley, D.J., Wagener, N., Eckel, E., Elsner, N., Pierik, A.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Na(+)/monocarboxylate transport (SMCT) protein expression correlates with survival in colon cancer: molecular characterization of SMCT. Paroder, V., Spencer, S.R., Paroder, M., Arango, D., Schwartz, S., Mariadason, J.M., Augenlicht, L.H., Eskandari, S., Carrasco, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
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  20. Comparative effects of a series of prolactin inhibitors, 17beta-estradiol and 2alpha-methyldihydrotestosterone propionate, on growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced rat mammary carcinomas. Teller, M.N., Stock, C.C., Hellman, L., Mountain, I.M., Bowie, M., Rosenberg, B.J., Boyar, R.M., Budinger, J.M. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
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  22. Interaction with the NMDA receptor locks CaMKII in an active conformation. Bayer, K.U., De Koninck, P., Leonard, A.S., Hell, J.W., Schulman, H. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and expression of mutations demonstrating intragenic complementation in mut0 methylmalonic aciduria. Qureshi, A.A., Crane, A.M., Matiaszuk, N.V., Rezvani, I., Ledley, F.D., Rosenblatt, D.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  29. Na+/H+ exchange in human lymphocytes and platelets in chronic and subacute metabolic acidosis. Reusch, H.P., Reusch, R., Rosskopf, D., Siffert, W., Mann, J.F., Luft, F.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
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  31. In vivo selection of androgen-insensitive cells in R3327-G rat prostate tumors: diethylstilbestrol diphosphate treatment versus orchiectomy. Pollack, A., Block, N.L., Stover, B.J., Irvin, G.L., Fuentes, M.P., Claflin, A.J., Malinin, T.I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
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  35. Propionate-initiated changes in intracellular pH in rabbit colonocytes. DeSoignie, R., Sellin, J.H. Gastroenterology (1994) [Pubmed]
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  39. The caveolin scaffolding domain modifies 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor binding properties by inhibiting phospholipase A2 activity. Gaudreault, S.B., Chabot, C., Gratton, J.P., Poirier, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Selective binding of synapse-associated protein 97 to GluR-A alpha-amino-5-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptor subunit is determined by a novel sequence motif. Cai, C., Coleman, S.K., Niemi, K., Keinänen, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
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  42. Growth and adrenal suppression in asthmatic children treated with high-dose fluticasone propionate. Todd, G., Dunlop, K., McNaboe, J., Ryan, M.F., Carson, D., Shields, M.D. Lancet (1996) [Pubmed]
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