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Chemical Compound Review

AC1O53DV     methanoic acid

Synonyms: hydroxyformaldehyde
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Disease relevance of formic acid


Psychiatry related information on formic acid


High impact information on formic acid


Chemical compound and disease context of formic acid


Biological context of formic acid

  • For the approximately 500 secretory cells of the glands, this means an hourly output of 10 ng of formic acid per cell, or about 5% of cell volume [21].
  • The alpha- and beta-subunits were separated by gel filtration in formic acid, and the sequence of the amino-terminal 10 amino acids of the beta-subunit coincided with that deduced from the nucleotide sequence data [22].
  • To investigate the structural requirements for recognition and response to ligands by the human estrogen receptor (hER), a series of point mutations were generated in the hormone binding domain (HBD) of the receptor using a limited formic acid treatment of its cDNA [23].
  • Ruthenium-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid was theoretically investigated with DFT and MP4(SDQ) methods, where a real catalyst, cis-Ru(H)2(PMe3)3, was employed in calculations and compared with a model catalyst, cis-Ru(H)2(PH3)3 [24].
  • Formic acid mapping suggested that much, if not all, of this phosphorylation is located between residues 257 and 285 [25].

Anatomical context of formic acid

  • Perinuclear inclusions formed in cultured cells by expanded polyQ can be completely dissolved in concentrated formic acid, but a soluble protein oligomer containing the expanded polyQ and released by the formic acid is not dissociated to monomer [6].
  • Results presented here indicate that HBsAg denatured by treatment with formic acid was captured by accessory cells and presented to the T cells much more efficiently than the native HBsAg [26].
  • The finding that beta-protein immunoreactivity in senile plaques, E-NFT and I-NFT is increased at different formic acid concentrations suggests that beta-protein in each location is in a different conformation [27].
  • By treatment with 90% formic acid before fixation, the original staining character of elastic tissue can be restored [28].
  • We studied the elastic skeleton of major cerebral arteries in rats, monkeys, and one human using scanning electron microscopy after hot formic acid extraction followed by freeze-drying [29].

Associations of formic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of formic acid

  • Here, we report that we used sandwich enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to quantitate various Abeta species in the frontal cortex of AD brains homogenized in 70% formic acid [35].
  • Immunoblot analysis of MRP fragments generated by digestion with formic acid or trypsin suggested that the MAb QCRL-1 epitope was located in the region connecting the two halves of MRP [36].
  • ApoE was detected in the highly insoluble formic acid fraction of the transgenic pancreas by an immunoblot study [37].
  • To examine whether the negative effect of the acidic C-terminal domain is brought about by interactions with the basic part of HMGB1 (N-terminal region, HMG-box domain), intramolecular cross-linking in combination with formic acid cleavage of the protein was used [38].
  • The concentration of IGF-I secreted into the medium was estimated by radioimmunoassay after formic acid-acetone cryoextraction, and secreted IGFBPs were analysed by Western ligand blot and immunoblot; accumulation of IGF-I mRNA was analysed by Northern blot [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of formic acid


  1. Therapeutic photobiomodulation for methanol-induced retinal toxicity. Eells, J.T., Henry, M.M., Summerfelt, P., Wong-Riley, M.T., Buchmann, E.V., Kane, M., Whelan, N.T., Whelan, H.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. August 2000: Two cases with necrosis and hemorrhage in the putamen and white matter. Feany, M.B., Anthony, D.C., Frosch, M.P., Zane, W., De Girolami, U. Brain Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Amino acid sequence of the winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) basic lectin. Adenine binding and identification of the active-site tryptophan residue. Puri, K.D., Surolia, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunohistochemical study of cerebral amyloid angiopathy. II. Enhancement of immunostaining using formic acid pretreatment of tissue sections. Vinters, H.V., Pardridge, W.M., Secor, D.L., Ishii, N. Am. J. Pathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Structure of glycosylated and unglycosylated gag polyproteins of Rauscher murine leukemia virus: carbohydrate attachment sites. Schultz, A.M., Lockhart, S.M., Rabin, E.M., Oroszlan, S. J. Virol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed by proteins containing expanded polyglutamine. Iuchi, S., Hoffner, G., Verbeke, P., Djian, P., Green, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. The presence of a novel protein in calf serum that recognizes beta amyloid in the formalin-fixed section. Kanemaru, K., Hasegawa, M., Shimada, H., Ihara, Y. Am. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. C-terminal alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in structures other than Lewy bodies in neurodegenerative disorders. Takeda, A., Hashimoto, M., Mallory, M., Sundsumo, M., Hansen, L., Masliah, E. Acta Neuropathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of virucidal activity of three commercial disinfectants and formic acid using bovine enterovirus type 1 (ECBO virus), mammalian orthoreovirus type 1 and bovine adenovirus type 1. Yilmaz, A., Kaleta, E.F. Vet. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Immunohistochemical studies of the PrP(CJD) deposition in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Tanaka, S., Saito, M., Morimatsu, M., Ohama, E. Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Linkage of protection against amyloid fibril formation in the mouse to a single, autosomal dominant gene. Gonnerman, W.A., Elliott-Bryant, R., Carreras, I., Sipe, J.D., Cathcart, E.S. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Murine model for human secondary amyloidosis: genetic variability of the acute-phase serum protein SAA response to endotoxins and casein. McAdam, K.P., Sipe, J.D. J. Exp. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Contributions of cellular leak pathways to net NaHCO3 and NaCl absorption. Preisig, P.A., Alpern, R.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Effect of formate on volume reabsorption in the rabbit proximal tubule. Schild, L., Giebisch, G., Karniski, L.P., Aronson, P.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Extent of DNA methylation in human tumor cells. Diala, E.S., Cheah, M.S., Rowitch, D., Hoffman, R.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Proteomic analysis of exfoliation deposits. Ovodenko, B., Rostagno, A., Neubert, T.A., Shetty, V., Thomas, S., Yang, A., Liebmann, J., Ghiso, J., Ritch, R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry of hydrophobic proteins in mixtures using formic Acid, perfluorooctanoic Acid, and sorbitol. Loo, R.R., Loo, J.A. Anal. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Biophysical and biochemical characterization of the intrinsic fluorescence from neurofibrillary tangles. Bing, G., Nguyen, X.V., Liu, M., Markesbery, W.R., Sun, A. Neurobiol. Aging (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhanced hydrogen production from formic acid by formate hydrogen lyase-overexpressing Escherichia coli strains. Yoshida, A., Nishimura, T., Kawaguchi, H., Inui, M., Yukawa, H. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. The amino acid sequence of Erythrina corallodendron lectin and its homology with other legume lectins. Adar, R., Richardson, M., Lis, H., Sharon, N. FEBS Lett. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Defensive production of formic acid (80%) by a carabid beetle (Galerita lecontei). Rossini, C., Attygalle, A.B., González, A., Smedley, S.R., Eisner, M., Meinwald, J., Eisner, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Nucleotide sequence of the fadA gene. Primary structure of 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme A thiolase from Escherichia coli and the structural organization of the fadAB operon. Yang, S.Y., Yang, X.Y., Healy-Louie, G., Schulz, H., Elzinga, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Structure-function analysis of the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen receptor by region-specific mutagenesis and phenotypic screening in yeast. Wrenn, C.K., Katzenellenbogen, B.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Ruthenium(II)-catalyzed hydrogenation of carbon dioxide to formic acid. Theoretical study of real catalyst, ligand effects, and solvation effects. Ohnishi, Y.Y., Matsunaga, T., Nakao, Y., Sato, H., Sakaki, S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Localization of the phosphorylations of polyomavirus large T antigen. Bockus, B.J., Schaffhausen, B. J. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Regulation of the human immune response to HBsAg: effects of antibodies and antigen conformation in the stimulation of helper T cells by HBsAg. Celis, E., Kato, I., Miller, R.W., Chang, T.W. Hepatology (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Beta protein immunoreactivity is found in the majority of neurofibrillary tangles of Alzheimer's disease. Perry, G., Cras, P., Siedlak, S.L., Tabaton, M., Kawai, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Elastic elements in the media and adventitia of human intracranial extracerebral arteries. Mérei, F.T., Gallyas, F., Horváth, Z. Stroke (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Study of the elastic skeleton of intracranial arteries in animal and human vessels by scanning electron microscopy. Yamazoe, N., Hashimoto, N., Kikuchi, H., Kang, Y., Nakatani, H., Hazama, F. Stroke (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Chloride/formate exchange with formic acid recycling: a mechanism of active chloride transport across epithelial membranes. Karniski, L.P., Aronson, P.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Primary structure of very low density apolipoprotein C-II of human plasma. Jackson, R.L., Baker, H.N., Gilliam, E.B., Gotto, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Partial primary structure of bacteriorhodopsin: sequencing methods for membrane proteins. Gerber, G.E., Anderegg, R.J., Herlihy, W.C., Gray, C.P., Biemann, K., Khorana, H.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  33. The minor haemoglobins of primitive and definitive erythrocytes of the chicken embryo. Evidence for haemoglobin L. Cirotto, C., Panara, F., Arangi, I. Development (1987) [Pubmed]
  34. Choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine levels in Drosophila melanogaster: a study using two temperature-sensitive mutants. Salvaterra, P.M., McCaman, R.E. J. Neurosci. (1985) [Pubmed]
  35. Amyloid beta peptide load is correlated with increased beta-secretase activity in sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. Li, R., Lindholm, K., Yang, L.B., Yue, X., Citron, M., Yan, R., Beach, T., Sue, L., Sabbagh, M., Cai, H., Wong, P., Price, D., Shen, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Location of a protease-hypersensitive region in the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) by mapping of the epitope of MRP-specific monoclonal antibody QCRL-1. Hipfner, D.R., Almquist, K.C., Stride, B.D., Deeley, R.G., Cole, S.P. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Apolipoprotein E accumulates with the progression of A beta deposition in transgenic mice. Igeta, Y., Kawarabayashi, T., Sato, M., Yamada, N., Matsubara, E., Ishiguro, K., Kanai, M., Tomidokoro, Y., Osuga, J., Okamoto, K., Hirai, S., Shoji, M. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Interactions of the basic N-terminal and the acidic C-terminal domains of the maize chromosomal HMGB1 protein. Thomsen, M.S., Franssen, L., Launholt, D., Fojan, P., Grasser, K.D. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Pancreatic hormones differentially regulate insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein production by primary rat hepatocytes. Denver, R.J., Nicoll, C.S. J. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  40. Ubiquitin is a component of paired helical filaments in Alzheimer's disease. Mori, H., Kondo, J., Ihara, Y. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. Chemical sequence control of beta-sheet assembly in macromolecular crystals of periodic polypeptides. Krejchi, M.T., Atkins, E.D., Waddon, A.J., Fournier, M.J., Mason, T.L., Tirrell, D.A. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Purification and characterization of a peptide from amyloid-rich pancreases of type 2 diabetic patients. Cooper, G.J., Willis, A.C., Clark, A., Turner, R.C., Sim, R.B., Reid, K.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  43. Cleavage of honeybee prepromelittin by an endoprotease from rat liver microsomes: identification of intact signal peptide. Mollay, C., Vilas, U., Kreil, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
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